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Should You Get a Pet?

`Tis the season for shopping and gift-giving. While shopping for that perfect gift, considering a pet for someone with a disability will require much consideration.


I will confess to being one of 10 to 30% of the population that is a cat lover, so when it comes to choosing a pet I am a bit prejudiced. Being a cat owner means accepting being treated with indifference as commonplace, or going out for the evening and coming home to this creature you care for, acting as though you’re a perfect stranger. Anything dropped on the floor instantly becomes a play toy and disappears forever. Since mine is an in-door cat there is the matter of a litter box. I would have never believed such a sweet little fur-ball could produce such a god-awful odor.  Yet with all the loving attention and gifts given, the biggest reward is stepping on, in bare feet, an ice-cold hairball on the kitchen floor, which was barfed up during the night.

Despite all of the above negatives, there would be a void in my life if she wasn’t there. In the middle of a cold winter night, having her jump in bed and curl behind my legs and purr is somehow comforting even though I find myself sleeping in some awkward positions, not willing to move or roll-over for fear of disturbing her.

In these times of maintaining social distancing and isolation have been difficult for everyone. For seniors living alone or in a nursing home, combined with the holidays, this is even more so. For those isolated because of a disability, the changes in routine and lack of social contact can have an equally negative effect on their lives.

According to the CDC, “there are many health benefits of owning a pet”. They go on to state that “There are many health benefits of owning a pet.” There seems to be an attachment that forms, it’s a bond and goes beyond just food and water or being familiar and comfortable with one another. CDC studies have shown that this bond between humans and pets can increase fitness while also bring about increased happiness.

Reports by the CDC found this relationship between humans and their pets have some health benefits which include:

  • Decreased blood pressure
  • Decreased cholesterol levels
  • Decreased triglyceride levels
  • Decreased feelings of loneliness
  • Increased opportunities for exercise and outdoor activities
  • Increased opportunities for socialization

Additionally,  pets have been shown to help lower stress and bring about happiness.

Consideration for Selecting the Right Pet

When thinking about adopting that perfect pet for you, or your family members or member. To help you with your research, the list below is adapted from the CDC recommended questions to ask yourself the following questions before choosing a pet:

My buddy
  • How long will the animal live?
  • What does the animal eat?
  • How much exercise does the pet need?
  • How large will it become?
  • How much will it cost for veterinary care?
  • Is there enough time (or capability) to properly care for and clean up after the pet?
  • What type of habitat does this pet need to be healthy?
  • What type of exercise does this pet need?
  • Are pets allowed in the home, apartment, or condominium?
  • Is the young person, older person, or people with weak immune systems who will care for or be around the pet?

What may be the most important consideration is: Does anyone in the immediate or extended family have allergies to any animal? The health concern can halt the process of adding a pet to the household before it begins.

For additional information and health concerns visiting the CDC website is recommended:


Choosing the Right Pet for a Senior

For older adults considering adding a pet to the home, be aware there are things to think about and to take into account before bring that pet home.

What is the best pet for a senior citizen? Esther Kane believes: “The best type of pet to get if you are an older adult is one that fits your lifestyle, your needs, your home environment and one that you can physically care for.”

Seniors who rely on a wheelchair or bed-bound or have difficulties walking with or without using some kind of aid will find caring for a dog, cat, or even a rabbit difficult. Caring for a pet would be impossible without assistance from others.

Below is a list of questions and issues to realistically to consider when choosing the best pet for senior life:

  • What size pet can be best accommodated in your home.
  • Can you manage just one pet or more?
  • Can you provide enough time for your pet to keep healthy and happy?
  • Can you afford the cost of food, vet visits, training (if needed)? This must also include any toys or furniture need for the comfort of your pet.
  • Do you have support in place to care for your pet, if or when you become unable to?
  • Are you able to tolerate (and repair) any damage caused by your pet?
  • What do you want from your pet(s)? Protection? Companionship? (How does one cuddle with or interact with fish?)
  • Are you physically capable of caring for your pet? Will you be capable 5 or 10 years from now?

Veterans, PTSD, and Pets

For many of our veterans returning home from the wars in the middle east, the experiences have left them traumatized. Most of these go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is an anxiety disorder with a  variety of symptoms. For example: having flashbacks, nightmares, or emotional numbness to name a few.

Arlo likes
cookies too

Treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure therapy, and medication have shown reasonable success. Many going through these therapies can help them to work through their symptoms lessening the impact the condition has on their lives and sometimes flares do occur.

Additionally, it can be hard to admit they are struggling and need help. To make matters worse it can be even harder to admit to someone who has never been at war and believe they could help with the symptoms. Finally, many veterans simply find it difficult to access the help they need.

Psychologytoday.com reports some of the reasons dogs might help those with PTSD:

There is a bright spot for these veterans in the form of dogs.

  • “Dogs are vigilant. Anyone who has ever had a nightmare knows that a dog in the room provides information. They immediately let you know if you are really in immediate danger or if you just had a nightmare. This extra layer of vigilance mimics the buddy system in the military.”
  • “Dogs are protective. Just like the buddy system in the military. Someone is there to have your back.
  • “Dogs respond well to authoritative relationships. Some military personnel return from their deployments and have difficulty functioning in their relationships. They are used to giving and getting orders. This usually doesn’t work well in the typical American home, and many servicemen and women have been told to knock that off once they got home. Dogs love it.”
  • “Dogs love unconditionally.  Some military personnel returning from their deployments have difficulty adjusting to the civilian world.” They soon realize the skills they were taught and applied while in the military do not apply and do not transfer to their new civilian life. Although they were well respected for their skills in the military, the lack of respect for these skills in civilian life can be devastating. “Dogs don’t play any of these games. They just love.”
  • “Dogs help relearn trust. Trust is a big issue in PTSD. It can be very difficult to feel safe in the world after certain experiences, and being able to trust the immediate environment can take some time. Dogs help heal by being trustworthy.”
  • “Dogs help to remember feelings of love. The world can look pretty convoluted after deployment to a war zone. But it seems vets have found not what happens in their relationship with their pets, all they feel from their dog is love.

The author ends by stating: “the best part is that it doesn’t seem to matter if the dog is a Pitbull or a Chihuahua or a plain old mutt.”

Pets for Your Child with Autism

This section must start with a disclaimer: I am not an expert on Autism, or do I recommend a pet for those with Autism. The choice of a pet in this situation depends greatly on the person the pet is intended for. I can say I have seen some positive outcomes.

Autism Service Dog

Have you given thoughts to getting a pet, but you just are unsure if it is a good idea? Do you have a pet but have not figured out how to help your child with Autism to be gentle with the animal? What type of pet would be best suited for your child? Is a service dog appropriate? How do you teach your autistic child to interact with a pet introduced to the household safely?

An article by Amelia Dalphonse provides pros and cons to many of the questions one may have as well as some the readers may not have thought of.

Dalphonse believes: “Pets are wonderful for children in a variety of ways:

  • Companionship
  • Teach responsibility
  • Help with emotional regulation
  • Service animals

With these benefits come some specific challenges:

  • Responsibility is often like adding another child to the family
  • Young children often need extra supervision around pets to ensure safety
  • Some pets may be disturbed by loud noises or challenging behavior

So, what is the answer? It’s up to the individual family to decide what is right for them.”


Dalphonse explains: “Many children feel more understood by pets than by parents. This may be because they never judge, get angry, or yell.”

There has been some research that found a connection between autistic children, owning a pet, and improvement in social behavior. For children with autism, there is often a struggle with empathy and the consideration of how their behavior impacts others. Dalphonse points out: “Learning prosocial behavior by taking care of a pet can help them develop this key skill.”  In the article, Dalphonse continues to acknowledge: “the research is just emerging and not definitive, this could be a significant benefit for children with autism. This benefit may be more apparent with specially trained therapy animals.”

Teach Responsibility

There is no question that pet-owning comes with an abundance of responsibilities. Even very young children can learn to provide some basic care like providing food and water or brushing the pet. It should be noted that this can be helpful, but it depends on the child. In some cases caring for a pet might represent just another thing to be opposed to.

Help with Emotional Regulation

Pets have been shown to greatly reduce stress and anxiety and they can provide a source of comfort in life. Again a cat person, there is little I find more comforting than the sound of a cat purring. That unconditional love and nonjudgmental companionship can provide a soothing diversion from stress and the promotion of emotional well-being.

Service Animals

Autistic children can benefit from service animals for a variety of needs. They can act as a second set of eyes warning the adults that the child is engaged in something dangerous. Service animals have been trained to warn of seizures or that the child may need assistance. Service animals are well trained, as a result making their cost high and you will find they are difficult to obtain. Be sure a service animal is a right choice for your family before investing.

Added Responsibilities for Parents

Caring for a child with special needs can be overwhelming and adding the needs of a pet may be unreasonable. There is allowing time for training, play, and another mouth to feed. On top of the time required, there is also the pet’s health and vet appointment to meet and to pay for. One other consideration is travel. If you can travel with the child, you may have increased this difficulty by including a pet or having to find someone to look after the pet during your absence, or if for a long period, can you afford the cost of boarding your pet.


Dalphonse reminds us: “Children with autism engage in a variety of challenging behaviors and may have difficulty interacting appropriately and safely with a pet. These children may require extensive supervision around pets which can further strain the resources of already exhausted parents and caregivers.”

So Many More Pros and Cons

There are so many pros and cons in adding a pet to one’s life. What at first glance might seem simple can become a complex issue. However, the effort can be worth it.

It has been well documented for some time now, about the bonds that develop between humans and animals. This post has primarily covered dogs and cats, but there are far more creatures that can provide companionship and add to the life experience of human beings. This discussion is just a glimpse of the information available. There are provided below a few of the many links on the internet that may help in choosing if you should or shouldn’t bring a pet into your home. Kira Newman wrote: “It could be that adopting a needy animal confers its own benefits, as doing good deeds tends to make us happier and healthier.” Newman goes on to suggest:” It’s clear that what we receive from dogs in love and care comes back to us a hundredfold.” That applies to those living a life with a disability or loneliness.

One final comment, I started by discussing my relationship with my cat and at this point in my life, it is difficult to imagine my home being without her to care for and her connection with me. She helps me through sadness and the days of depression or stress. My wife and I at times find it hard to believe the companionship she is capable of providing.

Works Cited:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). About Pets & People. Retrieved from:

Kane, Esther. (20180. What Is The Best Pet For A Senior Citizen?. Retrieved From:

Stecker, Tracy, Ph.D. (2011). Why dogs heal PTSD. Retrieved from:

Dalphonse, Amelia. (2019). Pets and Children with Autism: What You Should Know. Retrieved from: https://accessibleaba.com/blog/pets-and-children-with-autism

Newman, Kira, M. (2018) The Science-Backed Benefits of Being a Cat Lover.  Retrieved from:  https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/the_science_backed_benefits_of_being_a_cat_lover

Additional Information: (these are just a few, there are many more sites)

Wang, Karen. How to choose the right pet for a family with specials needs. 

Autism Speaks. Assistance Dog Information.

Paws with a Cause. Service Dogs For Children with Autism.

Coren, Stanley, Ph.D., DSc, FRSC. (2009). Health and Psychological Benefits of Bonding with a Pet Dog. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/canine-corner/200906/health-and-psychological-benefits-bonding-pet-dog

Dalphonse, Amelia. Should You Get a Service Dog for Your Child with Autism?

Langtree, Ian. (2020). Therapy Cats for Emotional Support or Comfort Animals.

National Center for PTSD.  Dogs and PTSD.

Perdue University College of Veterinary Medicine.   Service dogs & PTSD.

CNN Wire. (2020). Lifelike robotic pets used to help isolated seniors avoid loneliness.

Whitney Rehabilitation Care Center. (2019). How Pets Can Help Fight Loneliness in Seniors. https://www.whitneyrehab.com/how-pets-can-help-fight-loneliness-in-seniors/

Suttie, Jill. (2020) The Science-Backed Benefits of Being a Dog Owner

Self-Expression Among the Disabled

“We all have our own unique quirks and traits,” writes Courtney E. Ackerman MSc, she goes on to say: “we all have our own preferences and style for sharing pieces of ourselves with those around us.”

Self-expression for the disabled is just as important and can be just as creative and beautiful as it is for society in general. Social and emotional outlets are needed due to the psychological stereotyping of disabilities and the desire to be so-called ‘normal’. Self-expression provides the opportunity to experience a feeling of cultural normality.

Self-expression is something we are all aware of, it is at the core of every human being,and it is important not only for adults but children as well to have the freedom to self-express. The importance of self-expression should not be underestimated in society. Self-expression can take many forms. People may express themselves through words, facial expressions, body positions, movements, clothing, actions, and the arts.

In her article for positivepsychology.com Courtney Ackerman remarks: “How we share and express ourselves to others forms the basis of our personality, as understood by everyone but us, and sets the tone for our entire lives. It’s a vital aspect of life to pay attention to, especially if you want to feel more understood and more in tune with the people you care about.”

Furthermore, Ackerman goes on to comment: “The way that we share ourselves is known as self-expression, and it turns out there are a lot of ways to do it.”

As we celebrate the 30th anniversary of the signing into law the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), it seems like the perfect opportunity to point out that the term disabled is in so many cases misleading. It seems appropriate to appreciate that all people are equipped with varying abilities, strengths and weaknesses, and hidden talents which are often used for self-expression.

Before the ADA people living with disabilities were often minimized or ignored. There was little value placed on self-expression by the disabled. In the past 30 years, society has slowly begun to appreciate the feeling and ideas that were previously suppressed.

The Arts of the Past

It was not that long ago in human history that a person with a disability had few possibilities of self-expression. The few opportunities available were limited to that of being a sideshow ‘freak’ such as in the case of Charles B. Tripp. His talents ad skills may have been overlooked if not for P.T. Barnum and Ringling Brothers.

Throughout history, there have been numerous, famous, talented people with a disability who accomplished amazing works in all forms of the Arts. Below is a small list of those exceptional people:

  • Michelangelo: according to the Passionate People Team: “Experts disagree whether Michelangelo had gout or osteoarthritis. But either way, the famous painter and sculptor recorded that he had significant trouble using his hands.”

It has been claimed that the artist suffered from chronic kidney stones which would point to gout, but regardless, the artist continued his work with hammer and chisel as well as paints until he was nearly 89 years old.

  • Vincent Van Gogh: was believed to be bipolar and affected with bouts of depression. Of Van Gogh, The Passionate People Staff report: “had temporal lobe epilepsy” they continue report: “It is believed that his physician, Dr. Gachet, prescribed digitalis to treat his seizures. One common side effect of this medicine is seeing yellow spots. Some historians wonder if this is why Van Gogh seemed to love to use the color yellow in his art.” Additionally, it is believed that Van Gogh was most productive during his manic periods.

The talents in the arts are not limited just to visual arts, music has its share of composers and musicians who refused to allow physical barriers to hold them back.

  • Ludwig van Beethoven: Although he lived more than a century ago, the music he wrote still resonates today. The impact this German composer has had a lasting impact on classical music. Lee Standberry notes: “In the 1790s, Beethoven slowly began to lose his hearing, but continued to play, compose, and conduct. Eventually, he became entirely deaf, yet he didn’t let his disability stop him.”
  • Stevie Wonder and Ray Charles: Switching to more contemporary music, Stevie Wonder and Ray Charles are considered legends in the world of music. Wonder was born blind, as a singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, and producer he first signed with Motown Records at the age of 11.   
  • Since that time Standberry reports: “Wonder has been able to produce more than 30 top ten hits in the U.S. Ray Charles, Standberry tells: “plays piano, sings, and acts, all while being blind. Though not born blind, his eyesight started to deteriorate around age five, and he was completely blind when he turned seven.” Like Wonder, Charles also won several Grammy Awards and both men have won Life Time Achievement Awards and both were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.        

Film and TV Performers

The performance arts have a remarkable list of diverse people who have overcome a disability and have gone on to successful careers and have entertained and amazed us for years. On stage and screen, though dance, portraying real and imaginary characters, these people have made their talent overshadow their challenges. It is impossible to do fair justice to these showmen but it is hoped some of the links supplied will shine a light on the skills they possess.


Performance Arts (Dance and Theater)

While growing up the farthest thing on my radar was an interest in the Arts especially dance and performing arts. Now as an adult I have gained an appreciation for visual arts, with interest in the works of people such as Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Rubens, Childe Hassam, William Merritt Chase, and other painters, but Performance Arts has never been in my field of vision.  Yet through the studies of disabilities, the possibilities for self-expression offered by dance and stage performances are intriguing.

At first glance, there was a great feeling of admiration for the athleticism of the performers, the grace, and the flow of the movements. Watching You-Tube performances by Anjali Dance Company and Axis Dance Company one can easily become lost in the presentation and forgetful of the disabilities and, most importantly, the messages being conveyed through the performance.  Performance art presented by the disabled portrays messages that are subject to the interpretations of the audience.

Axis Dance Company performance
retrieved from: https://www.artsedconnect.org/educator/axis-dance-company/

Personally, one of the more captivating performances comes from the National Theater of the Deaf or the Deaf West Theater. It’s hard to imagine a deaf theater performance, but the combination of hand movement, facial expressions, and movements are magical together. Through this performance of beauty and grace, there may not be a better example of self-expression.

Visual Art

The need for humans of all types to have an opportunity to self-express is part of our makeup. In the area of visual arts, maybe best exampled by considering Henri Matisse, who is considered by many to be one of the greatest impressionist artists. His desire for self-expression continued even when ill health prevented him from painting, in his final years he turned to paper cutting and collages and creating some of his most important works.

Stigmas and feelings of isolation have often been a constant companion for those living with a disability. Marija Bern of the Bored Panda web site staff wrote: “Around 10 percent of the total world’s population or roughly 650 million people, live with a disability according to Disability Statistics’ annual report.”

Lisa Fittipaldi
Disability: Visually Impaired
Lisa not only learned to paint after losing her sight,
she wrote a book about it. Her inspiring use of color
and her ability to tell which color she is using just by feeling
the texture of the paint are just two remarkable facets of
her story.
retrieved from: https://www.webdesignerdepot.com

Bern continues saying: “From artists painting with their mouths to blind photographers – these disabled people are truly an inspiration. Living with conditions most can’t imagine, they often use this art as a way to communicate with the world.” The human need for self-expression becomes evident once one explores these works.

As mainstreaming increases, so to will come acceptance increase, and the desensitizing of cultures as they become increasingly familiar with people who are disabled. With each new generation as the previous one fades away, tolerance is increasing. Baby boomers are far more tolerant than their parents. The baby boomer’s children even more so, the acceptance and recognition of the abilities of the disabled and is far more acceptable now than for those of the World War II era.

It may be hard to believe that some of the most talented people deal with disabilities in their lives every day, living with and adjusting to situations the rest cannot imagine living with, yet have taken their talents and artistries and put them to use as a means of self-expression and to communicate feelings with the world.

With some guidance and encouragement and using a variety of methods, the results of these efforts are magnificent. Many of the artists paint with their hands, but others with their mouths or their feet. Many are blind or suffer from mental disabilities yet the drive for self-expression produces some of the most beautiful and intricate work anyone can imagine.

As the WebdesignerDepot comments on their website: “Their achievements are arguably epic in the face of the adversity that they face.

We hope that the artists in this post inspire your designs and make you look at adversity in any field as a surmountable obstacle.”

Works Cited:

Bern, Marija. (2020). We Can’t Believe What These 37 Artists Can Do Despite Their Disabilities.
Retrieved from:https://www.boredpanda.com/

Passionate People Staff. (2020). 5 World-Famous Artists That Had Disabilities. Retrieved from: https://www.passionatepeople.invacare.eu.com/5-world-famous-artists-disabilities/ 06/29/20

Standberry, Lee. (July 10, 2009). Top 10 Disabled Musicians. Retrieved from: https://www.toptenz.net/top-10-disabled-musicians.php 07/01/20

Ackerman, Courtney, E, MSc. (2020) What is Self-Expression and How to Foster It? (20 Activities + Examples). Retrieved from: https://positivepsychology.com/self-expression/

Additional Information:


Prejudice/Ableism: Too old to work or just not capable.

Ableism is defined as, “discrimination in favor of able-bodied people.” Ableism is most often associated with disabilities, but it can also be applied to people who we call seniors in our society.

One question which may come to mind is, who set the retirement age at 65? The answer may be somewhat of a surprise.  On his blog, Tim Kastelle posted, “The age of 65 was originally selected as the time for retirement by the “Iron Chancellor,” Otto von Bismark of Germany when he introduced a social security system to appeal to the German working class and combat the power of the Socialist Party in Germany during the late 1800s. Somewhat cynically, Bismark knew that the program would cost little because the average German worker never reached 65, and many of those who did, lived only a few years beyond that age. When the United States finally passed a social security law in 1935 (more than 55 years after the conservative German chancellor introduced it in Germany), the average life expectancy in America was only 61.7 years.”  Today, after more than 80 years, the department of social security calculates,

“A man reaching age 65 today can expect to live, on average, until age 84.3.

A woman turning age 65 today can expect to live, on average, until age 86.6.”

Many of us spend considerable time planning for retirement at 65, but for many, it may not turn out to be all we expected.  People come out of retirement for many reasons and in an article on The Street web site Kathryn Tuggle lists five of the most common:

  1. Pursue an encore career. An encore career allows retirees to pursue a profession that may boost their financial stability while also providing personal fulfillment.
  2. Have a purpose. A recent Encore.org study revealed more than 4.5 million people between the ages of 50 and 70 are involved in encore careers. Popular sectors for these careers include public service, education, or other opportunities that allow people to give back.  
  3. Stay physically active. Very few people plan to retire and just do nothing. Oftentimes people who leave the workforce find that they not only miss the routine of having somewhere to be every morning but also crave the physical exercise associated with climbing stairs, walking around the office, or traveling to meetings and conferences.
  4. Understand your financial need.  Some retirees may not need additional funds for themselves but may go back to work due to unexpected family expenses.
  5. Keep the mind sharp. Doctors recommend that retirees keep their minds active to avoid premature memory loss. According to the Center on Longevity at Stanford University, work plays a key role in keeping the mind functioning optimally.”
Jimmy Carter working with
Habitat for Humanity

So does being past retirement age mean we have no longer have value in the workplace? Maybe we should be asking that question of former President Jimmy Carter, who, now in his 90’s, is still active in “Habitat for Humanity,” while fighting cancer, and if that wasn’t enough still remains politically active. Or maybe we might want to consider the late professor Stephen Hawking who passed away at 72 and despite his age and a debilitating illness, continued teaching as well as working on his theories relating to the universe. These are just two famous examples of why hiring practices need revision. No one knows how much talent and knowledge has been lost due to the practice of ableism. These underutilized workers are a potentially untapped resource of talent. 

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Age is not the only concern

The US Dept. of labor posted the following information relating the employment rates for people with a disability:

April 2018 Disability Employment Statistics
Ages 16 years and over

Labor Force Participation

  • People with disabilities: 20.9%
  • People without disabilities: 68.3%

Unemployment Rate

  • People with disabilities: 8.0%
  • People without disabilities: 3.5%
Stephen Hawking at his office at the department of applied mathematics and theoretical physics at Cambridge University in 2005. Photograph: Murdo Macleod/The Guardian

It is important to recognize that what is missing in these statistics is the number of talented individuals with a disability who have simply given up trying to find work or are forced to rely on family members to subsidize what they receive from social programs. In his book, Hidden Talent, Mark Lengnick-Hall wrote: “Most people with disabilities want to work. Sixty-seven percent of people with disabilities who are unemployed say they prefer to be working” (p. 3)

On their website, the Pew Research Center states: “As the year 2011 began on Jan. 1, the oldest members of the Baby Boom generation celebrated their 65th birthday. In fact, on that day, today, and for every day for the next 19 years, 10,000 baby boomers will reach age 65. The aging of this huge cohort of Americans (26% of the total U.S. population are Baby Boomers) will dramatically change the composition of the country. Currently, just 13% of Americans are ages 65 and older. By 2030, when all members of the Baby Boom generation have reached that age, fully 18% of the nation will be at least that age, according to Pew Research Center population projections. But don’t tell Baby Boomers that they are old. The typical Boomer believes that old age does not begin until age 72”.

What is interesting is that one of the concerns with this mass retirement is the possibility of a business Brain Drain. By Brain Drain, we are referring to the loss of those skilled employees who have experience and have been successful at their jobs. They are a potential resource.

When exploring the potential of employees, perhaps one great loss to the workforce and society is the 60%+ people with disabilities who are unemployed.  Approximately 1 in 5 Americans or 20% of the population has a disability. Lengnick-Hall states: “72% of working people with disabilities have high school diplomas or a higher education. However, of those with a college degree, 55% are unemployed, compared to 14% of college-educated people without disabilities.”

Why don’t more employers hire people with disabilities? Some of the reasons are based on ignorance, some are based on stereotyping or prejudice. Many of the reasons date back to the industrial revolution where the value was placed on physical abilities. The age of the assembly line brought long hours of strenuous work, and any sort of industrial accident resulting in a disability went unforgiven.

There are many negative attitudes or misunderstandings about hiring a person with a disability such as:

  • Many employers believe that hiring people with disabilities will result in higher costs in health insurance claims.
  • Employees with disabilities have more accidents at work.
  • Employees with disabilities are less productive compared to non-disabled employees.
  • There is an increase in sick time and a lack of reliability among employees with disabilities.
  • The cost of associated complying with accessibilities and job accommodations out weights the value of hiring such employees.

Many companies use the strategy of ignoring applicants with disabilities in favor of the non-disabled applicants. Lengnick-Hall warns: ”Of course the potential costs of such a strategy include getting sued for discrimination, loss of reputation in the community resulting in bad publicity, and perhaps loss of customers with disabilities who find other companies with whom to do business”. (p. 5)

The Jobs Accommodation Network (JAN) has been involved in ongoing research for many years and; “the study results consistently showed that the benefits employers receive from making workplace accommodations far outweigh the low cost. Employers reported that providing accommodations resulted in such benefits as retaining valuable employees, improving productivity and morale, reducing workers’ compensation and training costs, and improving company diversity. These benefits were obtained with little investment. The employers in the study reported that a high percentage (58%) of accommodations cost absolutely nothing to make ($0), while the rest of the accommodations made had a typically cost only $500”.

This all comes down to, in many cases, business just focusing on the cost of workplace accommodations, which is shown to be low cost, but have high returns. There are organizations out there like JAN that help employers with accommodation concerns and remind business owners that the ADA prohibits discrimination based on assumptions, stereotypes, or any myths or presumption an employer may have about hiring people with disabilities. Business also should be aware the EEOC is targeting these cases.


Before we can begin to have equal opportunity in employment it is important to realize that currently little is being done to cause effective change. The current efforts have done little to bring about change in attitudes and hiring practices. As reported by in Ability Magazine: “Numeric goals being set by companies to hire so-many of this type of person, and so-many of another type, work only to create a foundation for future failure”.

It may seem like a simple matter to hire people from a minority group, but it is a different matter to treat them the same as you would any other employee. The answer to this dilemma is to create an environment of inclusiveness, which is to include many different types of people and treating them all fairly and equally.

Working towards inclusiveness is not necessarily an easy task for a business to accomplish. Changing begins with management, they set the tone with trust and respect. From the start, business owners and managers must be ensured they want to create an inclusive environment for the right reasons. If the goal is only to appear as a positive and progressive business or to meet quotas, so as not to find yourself in court with the EEOC, failure will be the result.

However, referring back to the Ability magazine article: “if you want to truly be a part of a positive future, to benefit from the life experience and skills of all people, regardless of sex, gender or whether they have a disability, then your company will reap the benefits. Culture is key. To reach true inclusiveness, work toward cultural change to find the path to truly combat discrimination.”

The simplest step is to hire people with disabilities, but do it for their skills which your business can use. Following that then take the next step not just to meet any accommodations, but as with all employees, they are made part of the team and show thoughtful consideration and respect for them and their ideas and suggestions. Let their voice be heard. 

One last comment from Ability magazine, which reports: “Companies that were the most inclusive of disabled persons attained 28% higher revenue, 30% greater profit margins, and twice the net income of their peers during a study period of 2015 through 2018.”

Not only can rethinking hiring practices the right thing to do, but as Mar Sagar wrote in his blog: “`doing the right thing’  can frequently turn out to be a profitable business decision.”


Heimlich, Russell. (December 29, 2010)Baby Boomers Retire.  Pew Research Center 1615 L St. NW, Suite 800 Washington, DC.Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2010/12/29/baby-boomers-retire/

Job Accommodation Network, (2018), Benefits and Costs of Accommodations, Retrieved from: https://askjan.org/topics/costs.cfm

Sagar, Mark, (2019), The Business Case For Hiring People with Disabilities=Comprehensive EAP, Retrieved from:  https://compeap.com/the-business-case-for-hiring-people-with-disabilities/

Kastelle, Tim. (2018) Why is the Retirement Age 65 in most developed countries?  Retrieved from: http://timkastelle.org/blog/2010/06/why-is-the-retirement-age-65/

Lengnick-Hall, Mark, L. (2007)  Hidden Talent, How Companies Hire, Retain, and Benefit from People with Disabilities. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.

Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2018) Disability Statistics. Retrieved from: United States Department of Labor, Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. https://www.dol.gov/odep/

Tuggle, Kathryn. (April 17, 2015) 5 Reasons You’ll Return to Work After You Retire. Retrieved from: The Street. https://www.thestreet.com/story/13110741/1/5-reasons-you-may-go-back-to-work-after-retiring-even-if-you-swear-you-wont.html

U.S. Dept. of Social Security. Benefits Planner|Life Expectancy. Social Security Administration, Maryland, Baltimore. Retrieved from: https://www.ssa.gov/planners/lifeexpectancy.html

Source of Images/Photos:

Diversity Plus, (2018) Diversity, Retrieved from:

Jimmy Carter, Retrieved from:

Professor Stephen Hawking, Retrieved from:

For additional information on this topic you may wish to visit:










The Right to Vote for the Disabled

You’re Not a Second Class Citizen

Vote Pins. Retrieved from:

Now that the primaries are over it is time to begin preparing for the elections in November. As an important portion of the American voting population, it is vital that those voters living with a disability recognize that their vote is powerful and an important voice.

Voting, as Kay Maxwell defines: “Voting is a process by which a person or group of people expresses an opinion formally or officially”. She continues on to say: “voting usually refers to the act of citizens choosing candidates for public office or deciding on public issues and laws. In the United States, people vote at the local, state, and federal (national) levels”.

Historical Background on the Right to Vote

As a young country with a population of about 4 million people eligible to vote it seems only about .03% or 120,000 actually voted. At that time, voting was restricted to free white males who were property owners and who met particular religious prerequisites.

By the 1860’s voting rights became more extensive with nearly every state allowing all white males, 21 years old or older, voting rights.

At the end of the Civil War the 15th Amendment to the Constitution provided for voting rights for all men regardless of race. It would not be until the passage of the 1965 Voting rights Act that blacks truly gained the right to vote in the South.

After a long political fight in 1920, women won the right to vote with the addition of 19th Amendment to the Constitution. In 1971 the 26th Amendment lowered the voting age to 18 years of age.

It should be explained that prior to the Civil War voting was not private. People would vote by a show of hands or voice their choice out loud. The introduction of print ballots became popular after the war, but these were often in different colors and shapes which signified the different candidates. It was not until the 1890s that use of Australian ballot, where all the candidates were printed on one ballot by the government that voting became truly secret. For those living with disabilities voting rights, sadly, have been slow in coming. As records illustrated on the US Department of Justice website: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) contains provisions relevant to the voting rights of people with

disabilities. The VRA requires election officials to allow a voter who is blind or has another disability to receive assistance from a person of the voter’s choice (other than the voter’s employer or its agent or an officer or agent of voters union). The VRA also prohibits conditioning the right to vote on a citizen being able to read or write, attaining a particular level of education, or passing an interpretation ‘test’ “.

The Voting Accessibility for Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984 (VAEHA) was passed. This act required accessible polling places for federal elections for the elderly and individuals with disabilities. Additionally, voters are to be provided with alternate means of voting on Election Day.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 provided protection for people with disabilities similar to those for individuals based on race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religious beliefs. The ADA title II requires State and Local governments (public entities) to ensure that people with disabilities have equal and full opportunity to vote. Title II of the ADA applies to all aspects of voting, including voter registration, site selection, and casting of ballots. This applies not only to Election Day, but during any early voting process.

The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA) among other things, the aim is to increase the historically low registration rates among persons with disabilities. The act also provides for public assistance or state-funded programs that primarily serve persons with disabilities to also provide the opportunity to register to vote in federal elections.

The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) requires jurisdictions responsible for conducting federal elections to provide at least one accessible voting system for persons with disabilities at each polling place in federal elections. The accessible voting system must provide the same opportunity for access and participation, including privacy and independence that other voters receive.

As of September 15, 2015 polling officials may allow those with a physical disability or a voter over the age of 70 to move to the front of the line at polling places if requested by the voter.

In 2020 Senator Bob Casey (PA) and Amy Klobuchar (MN) have introduced the Accessible Voting Act (AVA), meant to address the needs of voters with disabilities and to ensure they have equal access to the vote on Election Day and beyond.
See: https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/116/s3206

 You are Not a Second Class Citizen

On the CDC website it is reported that: “one in 4 U.S. adults-61 million Americans have a disability that impacts major life activities.”  Yet according to the website www.aapd.com: “16 million people with disabilities voted in the November 2016 election.” That equates to approximately 26.3% of the American population living with a disability.

Despite all of the history of struggles for equality in voting and the resulting changes, the website governing.com finds: “voting among the disabled is on the decline.” In the face of all the important issues confronting all US voters in the past elections, it is disheartening that voter turnout for those who may be affected the most by many of these issues is on the decline.

What is causing this lack of enthusiasm? There is much speculation as to why voter turnout for the disabled is on the decline. In an article written by Matt Vasilogambros, he has found barriers or lack of accessibility and untrained poll workers are the biggest contributors.  Vasilogambros quotes Michelle Bishop, a voting rights advocate, for the Nation Disability Rights Network who reveals: “under increasing pressure to oversee a smooth, secure election, untrained poll workers have discouraged the use of accessible voting machines, leaving voters with disabilities behind.” Bishop also recalls: “in the last election, for example, a voter called her to report that a machine was placed in the corner, turned off, with a flower wreath hung on it.” Bishop was believes: “The message is: You’re not wanted here.”

“A study by the Government Accounting Office (GAO), found that nearly two-thirds of the 137 polling places inspected on Election Day 2016 had at least one impediment to people with disabilities. In 2008 presidential election, it was fewer than half. The GAO also reported that State inspectors of voting accessibility had fallen nationally over the same time”, Vasilogambros wrote.

Vasilogambros goes on to disclose that: “Among the infractions: The accessible voting machine wasn’t set up and powered on, the earphones weren’t functioning, the voting system wasn’t wheelchair-accessible, or the voting system didn’t provide the same privacy as standard voting stations.”

The bottom line here is simple, it’s not that complicated. If you’re disabled, you are NOT a second class citizen, it’s time for you to speak up, voting is your right and so many issues apply to you. It is time for you to self-advocate, raise a stink, call your representatives and call the US Department of Justice to demand your rights, if, for any reason, you are unable to vote. Don’t just complain about the system or the people in charge if you’re not willing to do something. Remember so many before you fought for your rights; this year is the thirtieth anniversary of the American with Disabilities Act, let the world know, show them what you’re worth, make yourself known, it’s your turn.

Additional Information:

AAPD Statistics & Data, Statistics about the disability community as a powerful voting bloc.https://www.aapd.com/advocacy/voting/statistics/

Power: The Disability Vote

The Right to Vote

Register! Educate! Vote! Use your power. The Disability Vote Counts.
The Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)

U.S. Department of Justice
Civil Rights Division
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Voting Section – Room 7254 NWB
Washington, D.C. 20530
(800) 253-3931 (voice/TTY)

ADA Polling Checklist

Solutions for Five Common ADA Access Problems at Polling Places

Works Cited:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (August 16, 2018). 1 in 4 US adults live with a disability. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2018/p0816-disability.html

Disability Rights and Resources.   (2020). The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984. Retrieved from: https://drradvocates.org/voting-accessibility-for-the-elderly-and-handicapped-act/

Maxwell, Kay, J.  (2020). Voting in the United States. Retrieved from: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/voting-united-states/

Taylor, Danielle, M.  (November 29, 2018). Americans with Disabilities: 2014.  Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2018/demo/p70-152.html

U,S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section (September 2014). The Americans with Disabilities Act and Other Federal Laws Protecting the Rights of Voters with Disabilities. Retrieved from: https://www.ada.gov/ada_voting/ada_voting_ta.htm

Vasilogrmbros, Matt. (February 1, 2018). How Voters With Disabilities Are Blocked From the Ballot Box. Retrieved from: https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/02/01/how-voters-with-disabilities-are-blocked-from-the-ballot-box

Vasilgrmbros, Matt. (2020). Why Is Disabled Voter Turnout on the Decline? Retrieved from: https://www.governing.com/topics/politics/sl-disabled-polls-voters.html

Aging In Place

Be Pro-Active About the Future

Aging in Place and Being Pro-Active

Growing up I was led to believe that at a point in our lives we would enter what is called the golden years.  I have come to believe that whoever came up with this idea lied. They’re not golden, they’re rusted.

Bust of elderly Roman man,marble 40BC, Albertinum, Dresden.
Retrieved from: https://wikipedia.org

Not to be morbid, but as a realist, it is hard enough to be in the later stages of life where getting out of bed is sometimes a challenge, bending over to pick something up, walking and even our reflexes and thought processes begin to slow down. Many

of us begin spending time thinking about our youth, the way it was and begin thinking about our own mortality.  Combine these factors with the thought of spending our remaining years in a nursing home being care for by strangers in unfamiliar surroundings is not an encouraging scenario!

Now that we are in the middle of a dangerous health crisis which seems to affect older adults more severely than younger people and will undoubtedly have an influence on the future life styles of our population, our aging choices become even more complicated. For those at a point in life where planning for the future anticipating those Golden Years, these decisions have become much more complex and if there is a family element to consider. Does the senior go to a nursing home? Do they move in with a family member? Or do they choose Aging in Place?

This article is not intended to endorse or discredit any one option; the intent is simply to try to explain one of the choices available.

Aging in Place

According to Seniorliving.org:

“Aging in place means a person making a conscious decision to stay in the inhabitation of their choice for as long as they can with the comforts that are important to them. As they age, these may include adding supplementary services to facilitate their living conditions and maintain their quality of life.

Aging in place refers to a person in their golden years when they can live in the residence of their preference and are still able to access the things they require and used to in their daily life.

Some people may confuse the issue by thinking that aging in place will fix the things that they may have or problems that may arise. Aging in place can only address those problems that have already been planned for in the person’s life. Aging in place challenges refers to the health, social and emotional needs an elderly person may need and such needs that can be addressed to help them maintain a well-rounded life, in the residence of their choice.

When to Start Planning:

Aging in place means a person being able to live in the place of their choice without losing their quality of life when they reach senior age. But ideally what aging in place should be addressing is not just to maintain the quality of life that the person is used to, but also to make it better whenever possible.

To live out later years as comfortably as possible, financial and economic plans should be put in place from your earliest working years. Although Aging in place refers to persons of retirement age, it should concern everyone as soon as possible from the earliest years of one’s career. Plans for retirement should thus be created as early as possible and changed, revised and adjusted according to changing needs and requirements.”

There is no place like home:

For a great many people the prospect of spending their remaining years in their own home has tremendous appeal. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines aging in place as: “The ability to live in one’s own home and community safely, independently and comfortably, regardless of age, income or ability level.”

As one begins to think about retirement planning, the home one chooses to live in should be part of that planning. Be Pro-Active may be the best advice anyone can give.

When considering aging in place, a key amount of the planning strategy has to include the age of one currently owned home. 

  • The median age of homes in the U.S. is approximately 37 years old, depending on what area of the US you live in. Homes in the Northeast have the oldest median age; approximately 57 to 58 years of age. The youngest areas, such as Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, may average 20 to 25 years old.
  • 38% of sales are to 1st-time buyers; with a median age of 31 years old.
  • Median age of repeat buyers is 52 years old. (https://buyersask.com/articles-of-interest/age-of-houses-in-the-us-whats-the-average-age/ )
  • The American with Disabilities Act was passed in 1990. (29 years old)
U.S. Showing areas with newest homes in the west and south east, the northeastern areas with the oldest homes

This means that because so many homes were constructed before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act planning to renovate in many cases becomes more complicated. Planning for this scenario will be required before evaluating if remaining in your own home is the best and safest option.

It may seem obvious to most, but one of the critical elements in being pro-active in planning for senior years is health. We all hope to remain active through our ‘Golden Years’, it doesn’t always happen as we would wish.

Someone once said ‘youth is wasted on the young’, and as we age one may discover deterioration in our vision or hearing. Or perhaps our mobility isn’t entirely what it should to be and one may find balance less than it was a few years ago. As if all these possibilities weren’t enough, our joints and muscles fail to operate as smoothly as in our younger years and because of the possibility of memory loss we are really not exactly sure when our joints were not uncomfortable to move.  The majority of these prospects sound unappealing but these are normal processes as we age. Regardless, even in the case of a more unfortunate extreme health change, by being pro-active in home planning the opportunity to remain at home is still possible. Below are just a few examples:

  • In the case of decline in vision: are all controls clear and easy to read, such as the knobs on stove and oven. Is there ample lighting, especially on stairways?
  • When discussing stairways there are multiple considerations. For those who are dealing with mobility challenges stairs are always obstacles to overcome.
  • In addition to stairs, throw rugs, uneven flooring, cords, objects on the floor and many more factors related to movement have to be compensated for.
  • Door knobs and faucet fixtures should be the push/pull type rather than the twist variety.
  • Tubs/showers must be addressed. Are they too high or is there a zero clearance shower. Have grab bars been installed and a high rise toilet?

These are only a few of the factors that will need to be weighed when considering aging at home. If you are remolding before planning on retiring, it would be best to hire a builder familiar with accessibilities and you may want to first check with you local office for the aging, public health office, local senior center, AARP or your regional independent living center for more information.

There are many choices as we age and aging in place is just one. Each individual is different as are health needs and housing requirements. There are many options to explore, but a few things are certain, we are all aging and, according to the National Institute of Aging:

  • America’s 65-and-over population is projected to nearly double over the next three decades, from 48 million to 88 million by 2050. (https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/worlds-older-population-grows-dramatically)
  • More than 3 in 4 people — 77 percent want age at home.
  • 36 percent plan to modify their homes to enable them to stay in a familiar, safe environment as they age and we will all face these options someday. 

Consider the shortage in long term health care facilities, as shown in the table:

Table illustration of a dramatic rise in demand in health care facilities, while at the same time showing a decrease in the number of facilities. Retrieved from: https://blog.soliant.com/healthcare-news/americas-nuring-shorage-by-the-numbers/

Bearing this shortage in mind and the projected increase in senior population and the aches and pains you may feel getting up in the morning, it is reasonable to draw the conclusion that it is never too soon for a family to begin planning and being pro-active for those ’Golden’ years. Maybe aging in place is right for you.

One final note; it seems it was a moment ago my wife and I had our first child. I blinked and now we have three children and my grandson is graduating high school. It all happens faster than you can imagine so it is never too soon to begin thinking about your later years.

Additional Information:

Home Modifications

AARP Home Fit Guide

Guide to Caring for Elderly Parents

A Seniors Guide to Growing Old in Your Own Home

Works Cited:

Witt, Scott and Hoyt, Jeff. (March 13, 2020). Aging In Place – What Does Aging In Place Really. Retrieved from: https://www.seniorliving.org/aging-in-place/

AARP Bulletin. (October 10, 2018). Most Retirees Prefer to Stay Put. Retrieved from:

 Binette,  Joanne and Vasold, Kerri. (August 2018, Revised July 2019). 2018 Home and Community Preferences: A National Survey of Adults Ages 18-Plus. Retrieved from: https://www.aarp.org/research/topics/community/info-2018/2018-home-community-preference.html?CMP=RDRCT-PRI-OTHER-LIVABLECOMMUNITIES-032218

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Healthy Places Terminology.  Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/terminology.htm

Home Builders Association. (2019).The Age of the Housing Stock by State – Where are the Elderly Homes? Retrieved from: https://springfieldhba.com/the-age-of-the-housing-stock-by-state-where-are-the-elderly-homes/
Cire, Barbara. (March 28, 2016). World’s older population grows dramatically. Retrieved from:https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/worlds-older-population-grows-dramatically

Trying to Recognizing Dementia

Where Do They Go

Growing up, everyone who knew my father considered him Iron Man and the one who would definitely be the last man standing among our family members. He was a big guy, physically strong, and although he never finished high school, had more common sense than anyone I have ever met. He could build anything, loved the outdoors, especially fishing, and possessed a kindness and understanding which he put a great deal of effort into hiding.

Drawing of an old man diagnosed with senile dementia

Later in his life he began to have a little trouble remembering things. These hiccups in his memory progressed to the point where he would confuse me with my brother and mixed up his grandchildren’s names. Perhaps the strangest occurrence was when he took my mother to play bingo one evening and when it came time to pick her up, he wasn’t there. After calling the local police, he was found just driving around the city with no idea where he was going. He wasn’t lost or driving recklessly he just out driving.

Conversations with him became more and more difficult, he would drift off and begin talking about events which took place during his youth.

For many of us, the people we have always known suddenly begin to change or disappear. Where to they go? Why? What is happening? What are the signs they are leavings us?

I am just one of the millions of Americans who was forced to come to terms with an older relative afflicted with Dementia. What is happening to these people we care about can be confusing and unsettling.

Dementia is an umbrella term used to describe a decline in memory or brain function that impacts an individual’s daily life. This is different from the normal decrease in short-term memory most people experience as they age. Dementia is caused by changes in the brain which impact cognitive function, and it can be associated with types of dementia many of us are familiar with, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. There are a number of causes and different type of dementia. For additional information, visit: https://www.dementia.org/causes

According to the website Dementia.org, there are seven stages of dementia and they state, “in most cases, dementia is irreversible and incurable. However, with an early diagnosis and proper care, the progression of some forms of dementia can be managed and slowed down”.

As the Dementia.org website also points out: “Learning the stages of dementia can help with identifying signs and symptoms early on”. This knowledge can assist those affected with the early stages to get proper care and can aid caregivers in understanding what to expect in future stages.

Stage 1: (stages 1-3 known as pre-dementia stages)

  • Normal functioning stage.
  • Patient doesn’t show noteworthy memory problems.

Stage 2: Age Associated Memory Impairment

  • Occasional forgetting where an object was placed.
  • Forgetting familiar names.

Although this is common as a normal part of the aging process, this decline in memory can be an early sign of degenerated dementia.

Stage 3: Mild Cognitive Impairment

This is the stage where clear reasoning problems begin to manifest themselves.

  • Getting lost easily.
  • A marked reduction in work productivity.
  • Misplacing or losing important items.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Frequent inability to remember friends or family member names.
  • Struggling to remember instructions or information from a book.

This is the stage where the individual may begin to have minor anxiety as the symptoms are now beginning to interfere with their life. It is at this stage of the disease people are encouraged to seek a clinical diagnosis.

Stage 4:

At this stage, the sufferer begins to become socially withdrawn and has signs of personality and mood changes. Denial of the condition is common.

  • Decreased knowledge of current/or recent events.
  • Difficulty remembering things about one’s personal history.
  • Inability to handle finances, or to do any planning.
  • Disorientation.
  • Recognizing people and faces becomes a struggle.

At this stage, patients will have no trouble with familiar faces and familiar locations, but often patients will avoid challenging situations to prevent stress and anxiety or to hide condition.

At this point my father would not give up his driver’s license, but gave up is car. He was relying more and more on my mother to remember people and names. His memories of his own life were being distorted. My brother took over my parent’s finances and was scheduling doctor’s appointments and ordering prescriptions. Perhaps the hardest change for all of us, was his change in temperament. He became aggressive, he unexpectedly would disagree with anything and at the same time gave little thought to what he said to people or how he said it. In general, he could become mean at times. He was in a nursing home now and occasionally was confused as to how and why he there, but he would forget being there was his idea. I wish we had known more about dementia at the time, it may have helped us to understand.

Stage 5:

At this stage some assistance is required to carry out daily activities.

  • Inability to remember major details such as close family member’s names or home addresses and phone numbers.
  • Disorientation about time and place.
  • Trouble or inability to make decisions.
  • Forget basic information about themselves.

Although stage 5 can interfere with daily life styles, those with 5th stage dementia do not seem to need assistance with basic functions such as using the bathroom or eating. Most still have the ability to remember their name and the name of their spouse.

Stage 6:

Entering stage 6, patients begin to forget the names of their spouse, their children or primary caregivers and in all likelihood will require full time care.

  • Delusional behavior
  • Obsessive behaviors and symptoms.
  • Anxiety, aggression and agitation.
  • Loss of will power.

Patients may begin to wander, have difficulty sleeping and in some cases will experience hallucinations.

Before my father’s passing, he was well into stage 6. He was having difficulties sleeping and was starting to have hallucinations. He at times had aggressive behavior and anxiety as well as obsessive behavior.

Stage 7:

Along with the loss of motor skills, patients will progressively lose the ability to speak during the course of stage 7. Loved ones and caregivers will need to help the patient with walking, eating and use of the bathroom.

Most cases of dementia may be reversible. Sometimes dementia-like conditions may be caused by underlying conditions which may be treatable.

On the Dementia.org website they write: “The more aware you are of these steps, the quicker you will be able to react and seek help, either for yourself or for a loved one.”

Self Help:

For the many forms of dementia, is there anything we can do to help ourselves to lessen our chances of developing dementia? There are no guarantees but the following are suggestions which may help. Research suggest:

  1. Stay physically Active
  2. Stay socially active
  3. Participate in mentally stimulating activities i.e. learn languages, continue education
  4. Quit smoking and minimize drug use
  5. Eat a healthy diet (research has found that a Mediterranean style diet is most beneficial)
  6. Manage cardiovascular diseases

Dementia.org states: “These measures aren’t only for individuals who want to prevent dementia, these life style changes are also beneficial for those who are already diagnosed, as positive changes can slow the progression of dementia.”


One final comment for anyone, who, like myself, wondered, is dementia passed on through our DNA?

According to University Healthnews.com: The more family members you have who are affected by certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s, the greater your risk becomes. So, strictly speaking, is dementia hereditary?

Dementia statistics suggest that genetic background is certainly a factor – but not the only factor”.

Please Note: The article was written to inform and for awareness. SAIL is not a Healthcare provider, nor is any member of its staff. The information provided is not meant to be a substitute for diagnosis and treatment by a Physician, licensed professional, or therapist. Any information provided in this article is the opinions of the author and not that of the author’s employer or the employer’s staff.

For Additional Information Visit:

Molli, Grossman, PhD. (2018). Stages of Dementia. https://www.kindlycare.com/stages-of-dementia/

Works Cited:

Healthcare Brands. (2020). Dementia. Retrieved from: https://www.dementia.org

Vitek, Jimison, Susan. (2018). Is Dementia Hereditary? Genetics May Play a Role, But Other Factors Contribute. Retrieved from: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/memory/is-dementia-hereditary/

Image Source:

Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia