(518) 792-3537 Queensbury • (518) 584-8202 Ballston Spa SAIL@SAILhelps.org

Let’s Play in the Dirt and Get Our Hands Dirty

Sign, Play in the dirt because life is too short to always have clean finger nails.
Retrieved from: https://playwithdirt.blogspot.com

If anyone out there is like me, at this time of year my feelings are “O.K. winter I’ve had enough!” In my younger days I loved winter, but a lot of physical abuse leading to the onset of Arthritis and two knee replacements, it seems winter activities suddenly have far less appeal. So now in my so-called “Golden Years”, between being shut-in due to covid, reduced sunlight, and cold temperatures, the switch to daylight savings time and the slowly increasing of daytime temperatures bring about almost a feeling of euphoria.

As the world around us begins to awaken and renew itself, the warmer weather draws many people back outside to enjoy the fresh air.  As for myself, thoughts turn from dealing with snow and ice to the beginnings of planning my summer garden.

Our grocery stores now sell an enormous array of fruits and vegetables, but the majority of supermarkets today now carry plants and cut flowers. So what’s the big deal about playing in the dirt? What makes it worthwhile?

Gardening for Seniors

I remember my grandparents spending much of their summertime efforts and time in their gardens. Thinking back I also remember the pleasure it seemed to bring to them.  Seedlings on the window sills in spring to canning in the fall occupied a large portion of their lives, and they enjoyed it.

I have since learned there were considerably more benefits to them than just a use of time. In her Senior Living blog, Alissa Sauer writes about the “Benefits of Gardening for Seniors” she writes that she has found “5 Ways Gardening Boosts Senior Health”

  1. “Gardens Lowers Stress” I have always believed gardening relieving stress, weeding, although most gardeners hate it, in particular, can be relaxing. Sauer reports: “Studies have found that garden can lower levels of cortisol which can alleviate stress and even reduce high blood pressure.”
  2. “Gardening Increases Serotonin” For emotional well-being, gardening produces a feeling of self-satisfaction, a calmness, and a feeling of peace which in turn reduces any feelings of depression. Sauer reports: “One study found that contact with certain bacteria in soil triggers the release of serotonin in the brain and work as a natural anti-depressant.” This might explain why horticulture therapy is a growing form of therapy for people with depression and other forms of mental illness and has been showing positive results.
  3. “Gardening Boosts Heart Health and Reduces the Risk of Stroke” As a moderately intense exercise, gardening can be counted as part of the recommended 30 minutes of daily exercise. Studies have reported routine gardening can reduce the risk of heart attack and by as much as 30% for people over 60. Being outside has also shown to increase vitamin D levels and it has been suggested this can also help to reduce the risk of heart disease.
  4. “Garden Increases Mobility” Not only is gardening a great form of exercise, but it is also a terrific way to engage lesser-used muscle helping to increase flexibility and rebuilding strength.
  5. “Gardening May Boost Brain Health” No one knows the cause of Alzheimer’s and how to prevent the disease, research has shown that positive life choices may play a role in decreasing the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s and gardening seems to be one of those positive lifestyle choices. Gardening has been shown to engage essential life functions such as dexterity, endurance, sensory awareness, and problem-solving. According to Sauer: “Studies have found that gardening can reduce the risk of dementia by as much as 36%.”

Meaningful Hobby

Having a garden, as well as being beneficial for seniors in general, seems to have positive effects on those living with Alzheimer’s. A well-designed garden can provide several benefits, and as Christine Kennard writes: “It can be part of an Alzheimer’s treatment plan for those who are very restless or agitated and like, or need, to walk a lot.”

Kennard lists the flowing benefits”

  • “Provides physical exercise, opportunity to relieve tension, frustration, and aggression”
  • “Offers a meaningful activity”
  • “Allows the person with dementia to take care of flowers and other plants”
  • “Provides personal space for reflection and privacy”
  • “Provides time outdoors in a safe place”
  • Provides stimulation with color, smells and sounds of wildlife”

Gardens for the Disabled

With a little bit of consideration and planning, it is possible to create a pleasant, productive garden for people with disabilities. The health benefits can provide a source of socialization, stimulation, exercise, feelings of reward, and relaxation.

Gardens for people with disabilities can help to advance:

  • Communication and social skills, by having involvement in an activity with another
  • Fitness, maintaining  a garden can be a rewarding physical activity
  • Motor skills or physical ability have the potential of improving through planting and caring for a garden
  • Stress levels, gardening is a great way to relax and bring about feelings of contentment
  • Learning and new knowledge-gardening provide the opportunity to expand one’s knowledge of nature and the environment as well as increasing knowledge of nutrition and healthy foods.
  • New skills, gardening develops a variety of new skills leading to confidence
  • Enjoyment, a garden is wonderful for breaking up daily routines and is a leisurely task providing a change in day-to-day activities.

Children with Autism

They are numerous benefit to being outdoors and for parents of a child with autism, it gives everyone a break and to enjoy the fresh air, nature and the chance to put down the tech and see insects and flowers and learn about the environment.

In an article on the autismjourney website, Edward Sloane comments: “for children with autism, gardening has some benefits,” and below is Sloane list of how gardening can help:

“It can encourage positive behavior”
Many of those within the autism spectrum have difficulties keeping their emotions in check, thus parents and support people find their behavior out of control, and these supporters struggle to find ways to enhance positive behavior.

Sloane finds: “Having gardening as a hobby is a great way to encourage them to show positive behavior.” Sloane finds: “It puts their focus and attention on planting and tending to the flowers, It helps to cut bad behavior as they enjoy working outside in the garden. You will soon notice an improvement in their behavior when they  spend time gardening with family and friends.”

“It teaches the child to cooperate and work with others”
Socialization is an important part of working with those dealing with autism. Sloane believes: “Gardening is a great way to help them to communicate as they have to speak to others while gardening. They can work with someone else to dig and plant the flowers, Even gardening with a parent or close friend will give them a chance to build on their socialization skills.”

“It is a quiet and calm hobby in a safe environment”
Noisy unfamiliar environments for those with autism,  it can be challenging to control their behavior, they can become withdrawn and shy. Having gardening as a hobby provides them with an environment they soon learn to know and provides a place where they feel safe and secure, they can find quiet solitude in the familiar surroundings of their garden.

“It will help them follow instructions”
Another challenge for children of the autism spectrum is following instructions. Focusing on one task and then shift to another can be problematic, gardening is a great way to exercise the skills needed to follow instructions. Through gardening they learn the steps to build a successful garden, they receive the rewards of doing a good job by following instructions.

”It can teach them responsibility and leadership”
Through gardening, those with autism develop responsibility skills while being relied on for the day-to-day tending of the garden. The routine of watering and weeding and being sure the garden is well cared for helps them to understand the concept of responsibility and adds to leadership skills by taking charge of the garden maintenance.

“It helps them put their motor skills into practice”
For those on the spectrum who are faced with the inconvenience of difficulties with fine motor skills in their daily life, gardening can help to control movements. The repetitive motions needed to dig, plant, water, weed, and use garden tools provide practice to improve control eye-hand coordination skills.

Gardens and the Visually Impaired

Sensory Garden with Aromatic flowers
retrieved from: https://www.chicagobotanic.org/gardens/sensory

There is something about spring, the warmth of the sun on your face, the sounds of returning wildlife and the sweet smells of the new foliage come back to life. These are all sensory experiences that we all enjoy. Even with declining vision, other senses take over enhancing the experience of spring and the pleasure of gardening.

Building a sensory garden for people with visual impairment requires some important considerations: 

  • The number one most important requirement for a sensory garden is safety. What is critical for those with visual difficulties is navigation. Straight paths need railing and texture changes for changes in topography. Avoid plants, bushes, and flowers with thorns. Also, avoid plants that may be poisonous if accidentally ingested, or those that could cause an allergic reaction, as with poison ivy or poison oak.
  • The fragrance is a critical aspect of a sensory garden. Many people with visual impairments can have a heightened sense of smell and over-powering fragrances can be unpleasant. Selecting plants with less intense scents can produce a more pleasurable experience and greater interest. Selecting plant varieties with subtle sents such as chocolate cosmos, honeysuckle, carnations, chamomile, daphne, and gardenias can be used to help visually impaired visitors find their way around the garden.
  • Touch and taste add another sensory encounter to enhance the garden. Pussy willow and wooly thyme chenille can provide a tactile variation, while nasturtiums, hibiscus, mints, herbs and spices, berries, fruit trees, and of course vegetables are all great additions for the garden explorers.
  • A sensory garden would not be complete without accounting for auditable elements. Windchimes, a water feature such as a relaxing fountain, the chirping sounds of birds at a feeder or birdbath, the buzzing of bees and hummingbirds add to stimulate the sense of sound to the garden experience.

Well Designed Garden
Obviously, from the wide variation in possibilities, a well-designed garden there is not a one size fits all solution. There is a great deal of understanding and considerations to be thought through before ripping up your backyard. For some cases, the safest result may come about by consulting with a professional landscape designer.

For the average gardener, here are a few ideas to start with to begin to create an accessible garden.

  • Raised Planting beds at a comfortable height allowing for gardening without having to bend as far, or raised planting boxes allowing for access to plants at a height compatible with a wheelchair.
  • Garden pathways that are smooth and even without steep gradients or steps and low glare.
  • Pathways should be wide enough to accommodate wheelchairs.
  • Avoid dark or shadowed areas that can be mistaken as holes by people having problems with sight, or people with Alzheimer’s or dementia.
  • Seats in a shady area where a person can sit and enjoy the garden on a hot day.
  • Planting beds or planting containers no wider than 2 feet wide, allowing for access on one side.
  • Consider adding a ground cover crop or mulch to reduce the need for weeding.

Care to take While Gardening

Raised Garden Beds

Preparing Your Garden Soil

According to Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the CDC recommends the following of these precautions while you’re gardening:

We are all exposed to a little arsenic every day. The recommendations below are for people who want to keep their exposure to the minimum possible. These recommendations are intended to be on the safe side. Under normal circumstances, a lapse in following these recommendations will not, by itself, lead to health problems.

  • Increase the organic matter in your soil by adding compost or manure from outside sources such as commercial garden centers.
  • Keep soil pH in the near-neutral range (pH 6-7). For a soils test, check with your local agricultural extension office or purchase a soils test kits at a garden center.
  • Maintain adequate levels of plant nutrients by using a balanced commercial fertilizer.
  • Maintain adequate levels of iron in your soil.
  • Consider building a raised-bed garden. Fill it with topsoil and compost from outside sources or areas of your yard that do not have elevated levels of arsenic.

Note: Do not use chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood to build your raised garden beds. CCA contains arsenic that can leach into your soil. Use a safer nonarsenic pressure-treated wood such as ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ). Bricks, stone, or other wood products such as cedar or redwood can be used to build a raised garden bed.

Working in the Garden and Yard

  • Avoid eating or drinking while working in the yard or garden because contaminated soil and dust might get on your food and you could accidentally swallow it.
  • Dampen soils with water before you garden to limit the amount of dust you inhale.
  • Avoid working in the yard on windy days, when dust can be stirred up and possibly increase your exposure.
  • Consider wearing a mask if you spend time in dusty areas.
  • Wash your hands after gardening.
  • Wash work clothes to remove dust and dirt.
  • Take your shoes off at the door to avoid tracking soil into your home.

Preparing Fruits and Vegetables

  • Clean your hands, cutting boards, and kitchen tools with hot, soapy water and rinse well before and after handling your fruits and vegetables.

Soak garden produce in cool water and rinse thoroughly until the water runs clear. Commercial vegetable cleaning products are available in supermarkets to help free soil

  • residues from your produce. These products work well with leafy vegetables. Vinegar can also be used for cleaning produce.
  • Scrub firm fruits and root crops with a vegetable-cleaning brush to remove dust and dirt before peeling or eating.
  • Peel root crops like carrots, rutabagas, radishes, and turnips.
  • Wash berry fruits like strawberries and blackberries, and remove the “caps” (the tops of the berries where the stem and leaves attach).

Buy Some, Grow Some

Eat some fruits and vegetables from your garden and some from the farmer’s market or grocery store. Eating a mix of homegrown and commercial products can help reduce your potential exposure.

Creating Play Areas for Children

  • Fill sandboxes with sand or soil from an outside source such as a commercial gardening center.
  • Cover bare soil with grass or other material such as mulch.
  • Keep children from playing in contaminated soil. The most likely way for children to become exposed to arsenic is from ingesting (eating) dirt.
  • Have children wash hands and faces after they play in the yard.

Cleaning Your Home

  • Remove work and play shoes before entering your house.
  • Damp-mop floors and wipe down counters, tables, and window ledges regularly.
  • To reduce dust levels in the home, consider upgrading your vacuum cleaner bags to those that filter better or simply change your bags more often. Some persons may want to buy a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filter to better reduce dust levels.
  • Wash the soil from homegrown fruits and vegetables before bringing them into your home.
  • Keep pets out of areas of contaminated soil. Dogs and cats carry contaminated soil on their feet and fur into the home. Bathe your pets frequently.

For more information about ATSDR’s work at Spring Valley, visit our web site at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/sites/springvalley or contact any of ATSDR’s Spring Valley Team members:

Gardening Ergonomics

Many ergonomic design tools are made to be adaptable for people with disabilities and also to allow seniors with physical limitations to continue enjoying gardening. All of these designs have the enhancement of the gardening experience in mind for everyone.

From plans for raised gardening boxes to pre-built boxes, there seems to be a wide variety of equipment that can easily be found online or in many gardening stores and are available for any gardening enthusiast.

So go out enjoy the warm fresh air and the peaceful pleasure of gardening, no excuses.

Works Cited:

Kennard, Christine. (2020). Planning a Garden for Persons With Alzheimer’s. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellhealth.com/alzheimers-garden-plan-98084

McLendon, Lauria. (2020). 5 WAYS GARDENING BOOSTS SENIOR HEALTH. Retrieved from: https://inletcoastalresort.com/5-ways-gardening-boosts-senior-health/

Sloane, Edward. (2021). The many benefits of gardening for autistic children. Retrieved From: https://autismjourney.org/benefits-gardening-for-children-with-autism/

Sauer, Alissa. (2021). Benefits of Gardening for Seniors. Retrieved from: https://www.leisurecare.com/resources/benefits-of-gardening-for-seniors/

GardenExpert999, Dengarden. (2020). How to Design a Sensory Garden for the Blind or Visually Impaired. Retrieved from: https://dengarden.com/gardening/How-to-Design-a-Sensory-Garden-for-the-Blind-or-Visually-Impaired

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2015). Tips for Safe Gardening, Safe Play, and a Safe Home. Retrieved from: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/sites/springvalley/svgardening.html

Additional Information:

https://www.ahta.org/

https://www.healinglandscapes.org/ (Therapeutic Landscape Network)

https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/healing-environment/what-are-healing-gardens

https://www.carryongardening.org.uk/tips-on-garden-design-for-all-disabled-gardeners.aspx

https://adata.org/universal-garden

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/special/accessible

https://www.growsonyou.com/gardening/ideas-for-disabled-gardeners

http://www.universaldesignstyle.com/wheelchair-accessible-gardens/ (2013 Wheelchair Accessible)

https://www.ncbg.unc.edu/outreach/horticultural-therapy/

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

During the past year, we have all been learning to cope with the isolation due to the restrictive lifestyle brought about by COVID-19. There is light at the end of the tunnel with the discovery and manufacturing of vaccines, but the medical experts are predicting this will be a long dark winter.

For those who struggle every year with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), this long dark winter is all too familiar.  This long dark winter has both literal and emotional significance.  Combining  SAD with the quarantine due to COVID and the difficulties of receiving a vaccination for the virus, there is potential for additional problems this year.

What is Seasonal Affective Disorder?

The staff of the website Psychology Today notes: “Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD, is a type of recurrent major depressive disorder in which episodes of depression occur during the same season each year. This condition is sometimes called the ‘winter blues,’ because the most common seasonal pattern is for depressive episodes to appear in the fall or winter and remit in the spring. Less commonly, SAD occurs as summer depression, typically beginning in the late spring or early summer and remitting in the fall. SAD may be related to changes in the amount of daylight a person receives.”

It is estimated that roughly about 10 million Americans are influenced by SAD and there are perhaps another 20% of the population who may have a mild form of the condition. It seems women are four times as likely to have the condition as men. “the age of onset is estimated to be between the age of 18 and 30” according to Psychology Today. For many, the symptoms are severe enough to affect the quality of their lives, and about 6% of these have conditions requiring hospitalization.

In her report, Carrie MacMillan of yalemedicine.org comments: “SAD is more common in women and in people who live far from the equator. For example, it affects an estimated 1% of people in Florida and 9% of those in Alaska.” Continuing on MacMillan also reports: “In the Northeast, most studies suggest that SAD, in its most marked form, affects 3 to 5% of the population.” SAD also seems to occur more often in young adults than it does in older adults.

SAD is not only restricted to merely the cold-weather season, but there is also Summer-Onset-affective disorder or summer depression and the symptoms may include:

  • Trouble Sleeping
  • Poor appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Agitation or anxiety

For those people living with bipolar disorder, there seems to be seasonal changes as well. The Mayo Clinic suggests: “In some people with bipolar disorder, spring and summer can bring on symptoms of mania or a less intense form of mania (hypomania), and fall and winter can be a time of depression.”

Causes

The exact cause of SAD is unknown at this time, as mayocinic.org notes, several factors might come into play, and they may include:

  • Your biological clock (circadian rhythm). The reduced level of sunlight in fall and winter may cause winter-onset SAD. This decrease in sunlight may disrupt your body’s internal clock and lead to feelings of depression.”
  • Serotonin levels. A drop in serotonin, a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) that affects mood, might play a role in SAD. Reduced sunlight can cause a drop in serotonin that may trigger depression.”
  • Melatonin levels. The change in season can disrupt the balance of the body’s level of melatonin, which plays a role in sleep patterns and mood.”

Symptoms

Not everyone experiences the same symptoms associated with SAD and making a proper diagnosis will require the assistance of a mental health professional, but below is a list of the most common SAD warning signs to look for:

  • Mood Swings. Feelings of hopelessness and sadness. An energetic person may become lethargic and socially withdrawn.
  • Increased sensitivity to social rejection, and increased anxiety levels leading to a decrease in the ability to tolerate stress. Increased lack of willingness to be seen in public and increased irritability, a refusing to talk. Increased thoughts of suicide.
  • Problems with sleeping
  • Problem with concentration and focus
  • A drop in energy level is a symptom people frequently struggle with. They find it hard to complete simple daily tasks.
  • A heavy feeling in the arms and legs and fatigue.
  • Experiencing changes in your appetite or weight
  • Feeling sluggish or agitated
  • Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
  • Feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness or guilt
  • Having frequent thoughts of death or suicide

To manage seasonal affective disorder try to:

  • Experience as much daylight as possible. It is thought the lack of sun exposure is part of what causes SAD and soaking up as much sunlight as you can lessen your symptoms.  Sit by a window, or better yet get out for a walk if you can.
  • Eat Healthily. Comfort foods do not have to be loaded with salt, sugar, fat, and lots of unnecessary calories to be enjoyable. There are plenty of other healthier choices out there, be creative, try making a dessert using seasonal fruits. They may surprise you.
  • Spend time with your friends and family. During this pandemic, this has become difficult. Zooming has become very popular with families to stay in touch and to see and visit with one another. This can be an opportunity to hone those computer skills you’ve been putting off. Zooming is not a substitute for personal contact, but it is safer, so stay in touch.
  • Stay Active.  Covid has limited what we can do safely, but there is no reason you can’t go for a walk with a friend or family member or you could go ice skating. Routine exercise has been shown to be effective in lessening the effects of SAD.
  • Seek professional help. If your feelings of depression continue, you might consider seeking professional help such as a psychologist who can best determine if your condition is truly SAD and recommend effective treatment.

Treatment

As with all conditions, self-care is an important aspect of any treatment. As for those with SAD, it is important to:

  • Monitor mood and energy level
  • Take advantage of available sunlight
  • Plan pleasurable activities for the winter season
  • Plan physical activities
  • Approach the winter season with a positive attitude
  • When symptoms develop seek help sooner rather than later

As discussed previously, no one is sure of the cause of this condition, but some believe there may be a connection between the reduction of sunlight in the winter months and the increase in the depression associated with SAD. As a result, it is not uncommon for typical therapy to be a combination of antidepressant medication, vitamin D supplementation, counseling, and some form of light therapy.

Light therapy involves exposure to a bright artificial light that mimics outdoor light. This requires the use of a lightbox or light visor which is worn on the head like a cap and usually takes place first thing in the morning for a prescribed length of time which is generally between 30 and 60 minutes during the fall and winter months. The time varies with each individual and stopping the treatment too soon can bring about the return of the symptoms. The therapy normally continues until springtime as the volume of natural light increases.

When properly administered, there are few if any side effects. The side effects that do arise can include eyestrain, headaches, possible fatigue, or irritability. The inability to sleep has been known to occur if administered too late in the day.

If light therapy does not improve symptoms within a few days, medication and behavioral therapy may be recommended.

Finally, Carrie MacMillan suggests: “In addition to calling your primary care physician or psychologist, if you have one, resources include the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Disaster Distress hotline, 1-800-985-5990, or text TalkWithUs; the National Domestic Violence Hotline, 1-800-799-7233 (TTY: 1-800-787-3224); and the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, 1-800-273-8255, or call 911.”

Works cited:

Cardoza, Kavitha. (2021). ‘Tis The Season: Coping With SAD, Or Seasonal Affective Disorder. Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/2020/10/23/927135639/tis-the-season-coping-with-sad-or-seasonal-affective-disorder

MacMillan, Carrie. (2020). Will COVID-19 Make Seasonal Affective Disorder Worse? Retrieved from: https://www.yalemedicine.org/news/covid-19-seasonal-affective-disorder-sad

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2021). Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)-Symptoms and causes. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/seasonal-affective-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20364651

Unknown. (2020). Seasonal Affective Disorder. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/seasonal-affective-disorder

Additional Information:

National Alliance of Mental Illness
https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/seasonal-affective-disorder/index.shtml

National Institute of Mental Health

National Mental Health Association

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

National Environmental Education Foundation
https://www.neefusa.org/weather-and-climate/weather/seasonal-affective-disorder

Choices Psychotherapy
https://choicespsychotherapy.net/signs-of-seasonal-affective-disorder/

Robson, David. (2020). Dreading a Dark Winter Lockdown? Think like a Norwegian.
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/sep/26/dreading-a-dark-winter-lockdown-think-like-a-norwegian

Winter Safety

The New Year is upon us and with it, the chilling conditions for the next few winter months. There are potential hazards with every season but winter storms and cold temperatures can be especially dangerous.

Most of us from time to time have felt cold during the winter, but what many may not know is being very cold has the potential of being dangerous. Remember being young and playing outside in the snow for hours and not being troubled by the cold? Changes occur as we age, causing older adults to lose body heat faster than when younger.

Staying Warm, Medical Conditions and Medicines

Several illnesses make it harder for your body to stay warm and should be acknowledged.

  • Thyroid problems have been known to make it harder for a person to maintain proper body temperature.
  • Diabetes can change normal blood flow making it difficult for the body to stay warm.
  • Parkinson’s disease and arthritis can increase the difficulty of putting on more clothing. Use a blanket or stay out of the cold.
  • Memory loss can cause a person to venture outside in the cold without being properly dressed.

Talk with your doctor about your health conditions and avoiding possible hypothermia.

Taking certain medication and not being active may also affect the body’s ability to maintain body heat. The effects of medications include over-the-counter medicines (such as cold medications). It is best to consult with your doctor about medical conditions, medication, and cold weather.

Hypothermia

What is Hypothermia? According to the National Institute on Aging (NIA): ”Hypothermia is what happens when your body temperature gets very low. For an older person, a body temperature of 95 degrees or lower can cause many health problems, such as heart attack, kidney problems, liver damage, or worse.”

Furthermore, the NIA continues to warn: “Being outside in the cold, or even being in a very cold house, can lead to hypothermia. Try to stay away from cold places, and pay attention to how cold it is where you are. You can take steps to lower your chance of getting hypothermia.”

Warning signs of Hypothermia

Below are warnings signs for hypothermia to watch for in others and yourself. Watch very very cold homes, or persons not dressed for the cold weather. Be sure to have a discussion with family and friends about these warning signs so they can help be on the outlook for you.

The list below has been adapted from  https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/cold-weather-safety-older-adults

Early signs:

  • Cold feet and hands
  • Puffy or swollen face
  • Pale skin
  • Shivering (in some cases the person with hypothermia does not shiver)
  • Slower than normal speech or slurring words
  • Acting sleepy
  • Being angry or confused

Later signs:

  • Moving slowly, trouble walking, or being clumsy
  • Stiff and jerky arm or leg movement
  • Show heartbeat
  • Slow, shallow breathing
  • Blacking out or losing consciousness

Call 911 right away if you think someone has warning signs of hypothermia.

Keeping Warm Indoors

Although the focus thus far has been directed at seniors, there are also various reasons for people with special needs to have problems staying warm and comfortable. The NIA notes: “Even if you keep your temperature between 60°F and 65°F, your home or apartment may not be warm enough to keep you safe.” Living alone becomes a problem because there is no one else is there to feel the chill of your home. Below are some tips to help with keeping you warm indoors:

  • Set your thermostat to at least 68°F and 70°F. While doing this close vents and close the doors to rooms you are not using and keep the basement door closed.
  • Use space heaters with caution, some space heaters can be fire hazards, some can cause carbon monoxide poising. Read and follow all instructions and consumer safety precautions.
  • Check your smoke alarms and CO2 detectors.
  • Be sure to follow routine maintenance of furnaces, be sure vents are clear, and check any filters regularly.
  • Roll towels and place them in front of doors with a draft. Make sure your house isn’t losing heat through windows. Keep blinds, curtains or drapery closed. If you have gaps around the windows, consider using weather stripping, caulk, or plastic window sheets.
  • If you suspect your home does not have enough insulation, you may wish to contact your state or local energy agency. You may also consider contacting your local power and gas company. All of these agencies may be able to provide you with valuable information on winterizing your home. This can help in lowering your utility bills and they have special programs to aid those people with limited incomes.
  • Even though you are staying indoors, on cold days add an extra layer of clothing, a simple blanket or extra pair of socks and slippers can do wonders.
  • Try wearing long underwear under your pajamas, wear socks, or maybe throw on an extra blanket. Wear a cap or hat to bed. Keeping warm is far more important on cold winter nights than appearance.
  • Body fat helps you stay warm. If you don’t eat well you have less fat under the skin, therefore make sure you eat enough to main your weight.
Bowl of chicken soup
  • Alcoholic drinks have been shown to cause the body to lose heat, if you, drink do it in moderation.
  • Have an emergency plan, include your physician in the planning. Have emergency contacts in place, a list of prescription medications. Those with special needs should sign up with your area Special Needs Registry.
  • If you are having a hard time paying your heating bills, you may be able to get some help by contacting the National Energy Assistance Referral service at energyassistance@ncat.org, or by calling 1-866-674-6327 (toll-free; TTY, 1-866-367-6228) for more information about the Low Income Home Assistance Program.

Several online resources are addressing cold weather concerns and precautions that are important for people with disabilities and the elderly. Listed below are some basic tips to help keep them safer and warmer.

It may seem repetitive, but Make staying warm a priority!

  1. Wear multiple layers of clothing. Simply because of limitations that accompany the winter season, maintaining body heat is certainly one of the major challenges. Wearing layered clothing during the winter months will help to keep your body warm. Just remember it easier to add another layer of clothing, than to endure the alternative of being chilled. When braving the outdoors you should consider Dr. Kevin Sirmons reports: “40-45 percent of body heat is lost through the head and neck due to increased blood flow in comparison with the rest of the body.” So don’t forget a wearing scarf and a hat, additionally, your ears are part of your head and will serve you better if covered in cold temperatures. Finally, any exposed part of the body in the cold has the potential for heat loss. Wear insulated gloves, doubled up socks, and a pair of lined winter boots when going outdoors.
  2. A final word on layering. If possible have a winter coat with a hood attached. It is easy if you are caught outside without a hat or conditions become windy to simply flip the hood up over your head. Lastly, layering is best done using thin layers allowing air between layers to act as insulation and allow for freedom of movement. Avoid cotton whenever possible, once wet or damp it does not dry-well. Man-made fibers such as polypropylene tend to wick moisture away from the body. If your clothing should become damp or wet change them as soon as possible.

Additional Winter Safety Precautions:

  • Keep your Sidewalk Cleaned: Keeping your sidewalks free of snow and ice is critical for anyone with mobility difficulties. We all find it difficult to navigate icy walkways and through three of snow. Now just imagine trying to use a cane or walker, or traveling in a wheelchair, whether it be traditional or motorized. Be sure the sidewalk is cleaned wide enough to accommodate a wheelchair. The width of a shovel blade is not wide enough.
  • Wheelchairs: On the Easter Seals website Phyllis Buchanan, who is a power wheelchair user, provides some tips:
    • Think of your wheelchair as a car, especially in the winter. “this means making sure everything is tuned up, charged, and ready for possible rough terrain ahead.”
    • She also suggests, “having an emergency kit in case you become stuck in hazardous conditions. Some items to have on hand include a protein bar, bottle of water, hand warmers, and kitty litter to use for traction.”
    • Buchanan also recommends: “wheelchair users should consider buying an all-weather poncho that is spacious enough to fit over you and your chair. They can be found at any camping supply store.”
    • Another of Phyllis’s ideas is: “wheelchair users may want to consider outfitting their wheelchair with snow tires to prepare for the icy conditions. If you’re seeking financial assistance or a grant to make sure your wheelchair is winter-ready, consider reaching out to your local Easter seals for advice.”
  • Stock Up: We have already discussed the importance of maintaining body fat and the need for eating properly in the winter months. Being prepared for severe winter storms means stocking up on not only some non-perishable food items but also batteries, and if you heat with wood, a good supply of firewood, but also make sure all appropriate prescriptions are filled.
  • Carry a cell phone: It seems like a simple idea but keeping a charged cell phone with you can be a lifesaver, if you slip and fall, if you are stranded in your car, or simply lock yourself out of your house.
  • Move Slowly: If you do need to go out during the winter months, especially during or right after a weather event, even if it’s just to your mailbox, walk slowly and keep your balance and take your cell phone with you. Use cheaters on your boots or shoes, they dig into ice and hard-packed snow. For those requiring walking aids be sure to have rubber tips on them so that if you put all your weight on the device it will help to prevent slipping on ice. Finally, it is not a good idea to use rollators in snow or on ice.
  • Sign up with the Special Needs Registry in your area: On the website https://www.usedhandicapvans.com/blog/winter-safety-tips-for-people-with-disabilities/ they report: “Each county within each state of the United States has what is called a ‘Special Needs Registry’. This allows those residents who have special needs or who require special assistance to register with their county. If there is a natural disaster or an evacuation, or something else that would require assistance, your information will be on file in the area that you live in, making it more accessible to get the help you need, when you need it most.”

They go on to explain: “Refer to an example of the Special Needs Registry in Fairfax County, VA.”

  • Don’t forget your four-legged friends: While tending to our winter needs, we shouldn’t forget about our furry friends who we depend on much more than we often realize. Although they may have thick natural fur coats our pets can suffer from hypothermia and frostbite just as much as people. Seeing-eye dogs and service animals need to be prepared and protected for harsh winter conditions to ensure their safety. Service dogs going outdoors should have boots to protect their feet not only from the cold and ice buildup on their fur but equally important to protect their feet from rock salt used on walkways and streets. Undissolved salt crystals can be not only painful but harmful to the animal’s paws.

Work Cited:

Sirmons, Kevin, MD, NRP. (2016). 5 Ways Body Heat is Lost. Retrieved from: https://www.centracare.com/blog/2016/january/top-5-ways-body-heat-is-lost/

HMEA. (2015). Winter Considerations and Safety Tips for People With Disabilities. Retrieved from: https://www.hmea.org/winter-considerations-and-safety-tips-for-people-with-disabilities/

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Be Prepared to Stay Safe and Healthy in Winter. Retrieved from:https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/features/winterweather/index.html

National Institute for the Aging, Staff.  (2021). Cold Weather Safety for Older Adults. U.S. Department Health & Human Services. Retrieved from: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/cold-weather-safety-older-adults

Van Products, admin. (2015). Winter Safety Tips for People with Disabilities. Retrieved from:  https://www.usedhandicapvans.com/blog/winter-safety-tips-for-people-with-disabilities/

Ridley Park Police Department. (2021). Tips for the Disabled & Elderly During Winter. Retrieved from:  http://www.infoineed.com/health/safety-tips-for-the-elderly-and-disabled-during-winter

Additional Resources:

Winter Safety Tips for People with Disabilities
https://www.easterseals.com/explore-resources/living-with-disability/winter-safety-tips-for-people-with-disabilities.html

6 ways to stay warm and well this winter if you have a disability
https://disabilityhorizons.com/2018/11/6-ways-to-stay-warm-and-well-this-winter-if-you-have-a-disability/

Winter Storms – Red Cross Offers 15 Ways to Stay Safe When Winter Hits
https://www.redcross.org/local/dc-va-md-de/about-us/news-and-events/press-releases/red-cross-offers-15-ways-to-stay-safe-when-winter-hits.html

Winter Safety Tips
https://www.nsc.org/home-safety/tools-resources/seasonal-safety/winter

Winter Safety on the Spectrum
https://theplaceforchildrenwithautism.com/blog/winter-safety-on-the-spectrum

Winter Weather Safety Tips
https://ddrinc.org/winter-weather-safety-tips/

Should You Get a Pet?

`Tis the season for shopping and gift-giving. While shopping for that perfect gift, considering a pet for someone with a disability will require much consideration.

Lydia

I will confess to being one of 10 to 30% of the population that is a cat lover, so when it comes to choosing a pet I am a bit prejudiced. Being a cat owner means accepting being treated with indifference as commonplace, or going out for the evening and coming home to this creature you care for, acting as though you’re a perfect stranger. Anything dropped on the floor instantly becomes a play toy and disappears forever. Since mine is an in-door cat there is the matter of a litter box. I would have never believed such a sweet little fur-ball could produce such a god-awful odor.  Yet with all the loving attention and gifts given, the biggest reward is stepping on, in bare feet, an ice-cold hairball on the kitchen floor, which was barfed up during the night.

Despite all of the above negatives, there would be a void in my life if she wasn’t there. In the middle of a cold winter night, having her jump in bed and curl behind my legs and purr is somehow comforting even though I find myself sleeping in some awkward positions, not willing to move or roll-over for fear of disturbing her.

In these times of maintaining social distancing and isolation have been difficult for everyone. For seniors living alone or in a nursing home, combined with the holidays, this is even more so. For those isolated because of a disability, the changes in routine and lack of social contact can have an equally negative effect on their lives.

According to the CDC, “there are many health benefits of owning a pet”. They go on to state that “There are many health benefits of owning a pet.” There seems to be an attachment that forms, it’s a bond and goes beyond just food and water or being familiar and comfortable with one another. CDC studies have shown that this bond between humans and pets can increase fitness while also bring about increased happiness.

Reports by the CDC found this relationship between humans and their pets have some health benefits which include:

  • Decreased blood pressure
  • Decreased cholesterol levels
  • Decreased triglyceride levels
  • Decreased feelings of loneliness
  • Increased opportunities for exercise and outdoor activities
  • Increased opportunities for socialization

Additionally,  pets have been shown to help lower stress and bring about happiness.

Consideration for Selecting the Right Pet

When thinking about adopting that perfect pet for you, or your family members or member. To help you with your research, the list below is adapted from the CDC recommended questions to ask yourself the following questions before choosing a pet:

My buddy
Pooba
  • How long will the animal live?
  • What does the animal eat?
  • How much exercise does the pet need?
  • How large will it become?
  • How much will it cost for veterinary care?
  • Is there enough time (or capability) to properly care for and clean up after the pet?
  • What type of habitat does this pet need to be healthy?
  • What type of exercise does this pet need?
  • Are pets allowed in the home, apartment, or condominium?
  • Is the young person, older person, or people with weak immune systems who will care for or be around the pet?

What may be the most important consideration is: Does anyone in the immediate or extended family have allergies to any animal? The health concern can halt the process of adding a pet to the household before it begins.

For additional information and health concerns visiting the CDC website is recommended:

https://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/health-benefits/index.html

Choosing the Right Pet for a Senior

For older adults considering adding a pet to the home, be aware there are things to think about and to take into account before bring that pet home.

What is the best pet for a senior citizen? Esther Kane believes: “The best type of pet to get if you are an older adult is one that fits your lifestyle, your needs, your home environment and one that you can physically care for.”

Seniors who rely on a wheelchair or bed-bound or have difficulties walking with or without using some kind of aid will find caring for a dog, cat, or even a rabbit difficult. Caring for a pet would be impossible without assistance from others.

Below is a list of questions and issues to realistically to consider when choosing the best pet for senior life:

  • What size pet can be best accommodated in your home.
  • Can you manage just one pet or more?
  • Can you provide enough time for your pet to keep healthy and happy?
  • Can you afford the cost of food, vet visits, training (if needed)? This must also include any toys or furniture need for the comfort of your pet.
  • Do you have support in place to care for your pet, if or when you become unable to?
  • Are you able to tolerate (and repair) any damage caused by your pet?
  • What do you want from your pet(s)? Protection? Companionship? (How does one cuddle with or interact with fish?)
  • Are you physically capable of caring for your pet? Will you be capable 5 or 10 years from now?

Veterans, PTSD, and Pets

For many of our veterans returning home from the wars in the middle east, the experiences have left them traumatized. Most of these go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is an anxiety disorder with a  variety of symptoms. For example: having flashbacks, nightmares, or emotional numbness to name a few.

Arlo likes
cookies too

Treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure therapy, and medication have shown reasonable success. Many going through these therapies can help them to work through their symptoms lessening the impact the condition has on their lives and sometimes flares do occur.

Additionally, it can be hard to admit they are struggling and need help. To make matters worse it can be even harder to admit to someone who has never been at war and believe they could help with the symptoms. Finally, many veterans simply find it difficult to access the help they need.

Psychologytoday.com reports some of the reasons dogs might help those with PTSD:

There is a bright spot for these veterans in the form of dogs.

  • “Dogs are vigilant. Anyone who has ever had a nightmare knows that a dog in the room provides information. They immediately let you know if you are really in immediate danger or if you just had a nightmare. This extra layer of vigilance mimics the buddy system in the military.”
  • “Dogs are protective. Just like the buddy system in the military. Someone is there to have your back.
  • “Dogs respond well to authoritative relationships. Some military personnel return from their deployments and have difficulty functioning in their relationships. They are used to giving and getting orders. This usually doesn’t work well in the typical American home, and many servicemen and women have been told to knock that off once they got home. Dogs love it.”
  • “Dogs love unconditionally.  Some military personnel returning from their deployments have difficulty adjusting to the civilian world.” They soon realize the skills they were taught and applied while in the military do not apply and do not transfer to their new civilian life. Although they were well respected for their skills in the military, the lack of respect for these skills in civilian life can be devastating. “Dogs don’t play any of these games. They just love.”
  • “Dogs help relearn trust. Trust is a big issue in PTSD. It can be very difficult to feel safe in the world after certain experiences, and being able to trust the immediate environment can take some time. Dogs help heal by being trustworthy.”
  • “Dogs help to remember feelings of love. The world can look pretty convoluted after deployment to a war zone. But it seems vets have found not what happens in their relationship with their pets, all they feel from their dog is love.

The author ends by stating: “the best part is that it doesn’t seem to matter if the dog is a Pitbull or a Chihuahua or a plain old mutt.”

Pets for Your Child with Autism

This section must start with a disclaimer: I am not an expert on Autism, or do I recommend a pet for those with Autism. The choice of a pet in this situation depends greatly on the person the pet is intended for. I can say I have seen some positive outcomes.

pawsitivityservicedogs.com
Autism Service Dog

Have you given thoughts to getting a pet, but you just are unsure if it is a good idea? Do you have a pet but have not figured out how to help your child with Autism to be gentle with the animal? What type of pet would be best suited for your child? Is a service dog appropriate? How do you teach your autistic child to interact with a pet introduced to the household safely?

An article by Amelia Dalphonse provides pros and cons to many of the questions one may have as well as some the readers may not have thought of.

Dalphonse believes: “Pets are wonderful for children in a variety of ways:

  • Companionship
  • Teach responsibility
  • Help with emotional regulation
  • Service animals

With these benefits come some specific challenges:

  • Responsibility is often like adding another child to the family
  • Young children often need extra supervision around pets to ensure safety
  • Some pets may be disturbed by loud noises or challenging behavior

So, what is the answer? It’s up to the individual family to decide what is right for them.”

Companionship

Dalphonse explains: “Many children feel more understood by pets than by parents. This may be because they never judge, get angry, or yell.”

There has been some research that found a connection between autistic children, owning a pet, and improvement in social behavior. For children with autism, there is often a struggle with empathy and the consideration of how their behavior impacts others. Dalphonse points out: “Learning prosocial behavior by taking care of a pet can help them develop this key skill.”  In the article, Dalphonse continues to acknowledge: “the research is just emerging and not definitive, this could be a significant benefit for children with autism. This benefit may be more apparent with specially trained therapy animals.”

Teach Responsibility

There is no question that pet-owning comes with an abundance of responsibilities. Even very young children can learn to provide some basic care like providing food and water or brushing the pet. It should be noted that this can be helpful, but it depends on the child. In some cases caring for a pet might represent just another thing to be opposed to.

Help with Emotional Regulation

Pets have been shown to greatly reduce stress and anxiety and they can provide a source of comfort in life. Again a cat person, there is little I find more comforting than the sound of a cat purring. That unconditional love and nonjudgmental companionship can provide a soothing diversion from stress and the promotion of emotional well-being.

Service Animals

Autistic children can benefit from service animals for a variety of needs. They can act as a second set of eyes warning the adults that the child is engaged in something dangerous. Service animals have been trained to warn of seizures or that the child may need assistance. Service animals are well trained, as a result making their cost high and you will find they are difficult to obtain. Be sure a service animal is a right choice for your family before investing.

Added Responsibilities for Parents

Caring for a child with special needs can be overwhelming and adding the needs of a pet may be unreasonable. There is allowing time for training, play, and another mouth to feed. On top of the time required, there is also the pet’s health and vet appointment to meet and to pay for. One other consideration is travel. If you can travel with the child, you may have increased this difficulty by including a pet or having to find someone to look after the pet during your absence, or if for a long period, can you afford the cost of boarding your pet.

Safety

Dalphonse reminds us: “Children with autism engage in a variety of challenging behaviors and may have difficulty interacting appropriately and safely with a pet. These children may require extensive supervision around pets which can further strain the resources of already exhausted parents and caregivers.”

So Many More Pros and Cons

There are so many pros and cons in adding a pet to one’s life. What at first glance might seem simple can become a complex issue. However, the effort can be worth it.

It has been well documented for some time now, about the bonds that develop between humans and animals. This post has primarily covered dogs and cats, but there are far more creatures that can provide companionship and add to the life experience of human beings. This discussion is just a glimpse of the information available. There are provided below a few of the many links on the internet that may help in choosing if you should or shouldn’t bring a pet into your home. Kira Newman wrote: “It could be that adopting a needy animal confers its own benefits, as doing good deeds tends to make us happier and healthier.” Newman goes on to suggest:” It’s clear that what we receive from dogs in love and care comes back to us a hundredfold.” That applies to those living a life with a disability or loneliness.

One final comment, I started by discussing my relationship with my cat and at this point in my life, it is difficult to imagine my home being without her to care for and her connection with me. She helps me through sadness and the days of depression or stress. My wife and I at times find it hard to believe the companionship she is capable of providing.

Works Cited:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). About Pets & People. Retrieved from:
 https://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/health-benefits/index.html

Kane, Esther. (20180. What Is The Best Pet For A Senior Citizen?. Retrieved From:
https://seniorsafetyadvice.com/what-is-the-best-pet-for-a-senior-citizen/

Stecker, Tracy, Ph.D. (2011). Why dogs heal PTSD. Retrieved from:
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/survivors/201107/why-dogs-heal-ptsd

Dalphonse, Amelia. (2019). Pets and Children with Autism: What You Should Know. Retrieved from: https://accessibleaba.com/blog/pets-and-children-with-autism

Newman, Kira, M. (2018) The Science-Backed Benefits of Being a Cat Lover.  Retrieved from:  https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/the_science_backed_benefits_of_being_a_cat_lover

Additional Information: (these are just a few, there are many more sites)

Wang, Karen. How to choose the right pet for a family with specials needs. 
https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/05/09/how-to-choose-the-right-pet-for-a-family-with-special-needs/

Autism Speaks. Assistance Dog Information.
https://www.autismspeaks.org/assistance-dog-information

Paws with a Cause. Service Dogs For Children with Autism.
https://www.pawswithacause.org/what-we-do/assistance-dogs/service-dogs-for-children-with-autism/

Coren, Stanley, Ph.D., DSc, FRSC. (2009). Health and Psychological Benefits of Bonding with a Pet Dog. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/canine-corner/200906/health-and-psychological-benefits-bonding-pet-dog

Dalphonse, Amelia. Should You Get a Service Dog for Your Child with Autism?
https://accessibleaba.com/blog/service-dog-for-your-child-with-autism

Langtree, Ian. (2020). Therapy Cats for Emotional Support or Comfort Animals.
https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/serviceanimals/cats.php

National Center for PTSD.  Dogs and PTSD.
https://www.ptsd.va.gov/gethelp/dogs_ptsd.asp

Perdue University College of Veterinary Medicine.   Service dogs & PTSD.
https://www.vet.purdue.edu/chab/ohaire/PTSD.php

CNN Wire. (2020). Lifelike robotic pets used to help isolated seniors avoid loneliness.
https://ktla.com/news/nationworld/lifelike-robotic-pets-used-to-help-isolated-seniors-avoid-loneliness/

Whitney Rehabilitation Care Center. (2019). How Pets Can Help Fight Loneliness in Seniors. https://www.whitneyrehab.com/how-pets-can-help-fight-loneliness-in-seniors/

Suttie, Jill. (2020) The Science-Backed Benefits of Being a Dog Owner
https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/the_science_backed_benefits_of_being_a_dog_owner

Why Fish Make Great Pets For Kids
https://thewittyfish.com/why-fish-make-great-pets-for-kids/

Self-Expression Among the Disabled

“We all have our own unique quirks and traits,” writes Courtney E. Ackerman MSc, she goes on to say: “we all have our own preferences and style for sharing pieces of ourselves with those around us.”

Self-expression for the disabled is just as important and can be just as creative and beautiful as it is for society in general. Social and emotional outlets are needed due to the psychological stereotyping of disabilities and the desire to be so-called ‘normal’. Self-expression provides the opportunity to experience a feeling of cultural normality.

Self-expression is something we are all aware of, it is at the core of every human being,and it is important not only for adults but children as well to have the freedom to self-express. The importance of self-expression should not be underestimated in society. Self-expression can take many forms. People may express themselves through words, facial expressions, body positions, movements, clothing, actions, and the arts.

In her article for positivepsychology.com Courtney Ackerman remarks: “How we share and express ourselves to others forms the basis of our personality, as understood by everyone but us, and sets the tone for our entire lives. It’s a vital aspect of life to pay attention to, especially if you want to feel more understood and more in tune with the people you care about.”

Furthermore, Ackerman goes on to comment: “The way that we share ourselves is known as self-expression, and it turns out there are a lot of ways to do it.”

As we celebrate the 30th anniversary of the signing into law the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), it seems like the perfect opportunity to point out that the term disabled is in so many cases misleading. It seems appropriate to appreciate that all people are equipped with varying abilities, strengths and weaknesses, and hidden talents which are often used for self-expression.

Before the ADA people living with disabilities were often minimized or ignored. There was little value placed on self-expression by the disabled. In the past 30 years, society has slowly begun to appreciate the feeling and ideas that were previously suppressed.

The Arts of the Past

It was not that long ago in human history that a person with a disability had few possibilities of self-expression. The few opportunities available were limited to that of being a sideshow ‘freak’ such as in the case of Charles B. Tripp. His talents ad skills may have been overlooked if not for P.T. Barnum and Ringling Brothers.

Throughout history, there have been numerous, famous, talented people with a disability who accomplished amazing works in all forms of the Arts. Below is a small list of those exceptional people:

  • Michelangelo: according to the Passionate People Team: “Experts disagree whether Michelangelo had gout or osteoarthritis. But either way, the famous painter and sculptor recorded that he had significant trouble using his hands.”

It has been claimed that the artist suffered from chronic kidney stones which would point to gout, but regardless, the artist continued his work with hammer and chisel as well as paints until he was nearly 89 years old.

  • Vincent Van Gogh: was believed to be bipolar and affected with bouts of depression. Of Van Gogh, The Passionate People Staff report: “had temporal lobe epilepsy” they continue report: “It is believed that his physician, Dr. Gachet, prescribed digitalis to treat his seizures. One common side effect of this medicine is seeing yellow spots. Some historians wonder if this is why Van Gogh seemed to love to use the color yellow in his art.” Additionally, it is believed that Van Gogh was most productive during his manic periods.

The talents in the arts are not limited just to visual arts, music has its share of composers and musicians who refused to allow physical barriers to hold them back.

  • Ludwig van Beethoven: Although he lived more than a century ago, the music he wrote still resonates today. The impact this German composer has had a lasting impact on classical music. Lee Standberry notes: “In the 1790s, Beethoven slowly began to lose his hearing, but continued to play, compose, and conduct. Eventually, he became entirely deaf, yet he didn’t let his disability stop him.”
  • Stevie Wonder and Ray Charles: Switching to more contemporary music, Stevie Wonder and Ray Charles are considered legends in the world of music. Wonder was born blind, as a singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, and producer he first signed with Motown Records at the age of 11.   
  • Since that time Standberry reports: “Wonder has been able to produce more than 30 top ten hits in the U.S. Ray Charles, Standberry tells: “plays piano, sings, and acts, all while being blind. Though not born blind, his eyesight started to deteriorate around age five, and he was completely blind when he turned seven.” Like Wonder, Charles also won several Grammy Awards and both men have won Life Time Achievement Awards and both were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.        

Film and TV Performers

The performance arts have a remarkable list of diverse people who have overcome a disability and have gone on to successful careers and have entertained and amazed us for years. On stage and screen, though dance, portraying real and imaginary characters, these people have made their talent overshadow their challenges. It is impossible to do fair justice to these showmen but it is hoped some of the links supplied will shine a light on the skills they possess.

https://www.imdb.com/list/ls002311249/https://disabilityhorizons.com/2017/12/top-10-disabled-celebrities-across-world

Performance Arts (Dance and Theater)

While growing up the farthest thing on my radar was an interest in the Arts especially dance and performing arts. Now as an adult I have gained an appreciation for visual arts, with interest in the works of people such as Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Rubens, Childe Hassam, William Merritt Chase, and other painters, but Performance Arts has never been in my field of vision.  Yet through the studies of disabilities, the possibilities for self-expression offered by dance and stage performances are intriguing.

At first glance, there was a great feeling of admiration for the athleticism of the performers, the grace, and the flow of the movements. Watching You-Tube performances by Anjali Dance Company and Axis Dance Company one can easily become lost in the presentation and forgetful of the disabilities and, most importantly, the messages being conveyed through the performance.  Performance art presented by the disabled portrays messages that are subject to the interpretations of the audience.

Axis Dance Company performance
retrieved from: https://www.artsedconnect.org/educator/axis-dance-company/

Personally, one of the more captivating performances comes from the National Theater of the Deaf or the Deaf West Theater. It’s hard to imagine a deaf theater performance, but the combination of hand movement, facial expressions, and movements are magical together. Through this performance of beauty and grace, there may not be a better example of self-expression.

Visual Art

The need for humans of all types to have an opportunity to self-express is part of our makeup. In the area of visual arts, maybe best exampled by considering Henri Matisse, who is considered by many to be one of the greatest impressionist artists. His desire for self-expression continued even when ill health prevented him from painting, in his final years he turned to paper cutting and collages and creating some of his most important works.

Stigmas and feelings of isolation have often been a constant companion for those living with a disability. Marija Bern of the Bored Panda web site staff wrote: “Around 10 percent of the total world’s population or roughly 650 million people, live with a disability according to Disability Statistics’ annual report.”

Lisa Fittipaldi
Disability: Visually Impaired
Lisa not only learned to paint after losing her sight,
she wrote a book about it. Her inspiring use of color
and her ability to tell which color she is using just by feeling
the texture of the paint are just two remarkable facets of
her story.
retrieved from: https://www.webdesignerdepot.com

Bern continues saying: “From artists painting with their mouths to blind photographers – these disabled people are truly an inspiration. Living with conditions most can’t imagine, they often use this art as a way to communicate with the world.” The human need for self-expression becomes evident once one explores these works.

As mainstreaming increases, so to will come acceptance increase, and the desensitizing of cultures as they become increasingly familiar with people who are disabled. With each new generation as the previous one fades away, tolerance is increasing. Baby boomers are far more tolerant than their parents. The baby boomer’s children even more so, the acceptance and recognition of the abilities of the disabled and is far more acceptable now than for those of the World War II era.

It may be hard to believe that some of the most talented people deal with disabilities in their lives every day, living with and adjusting to situations the rest cannot imagine living with, yet have taken their talents and artistries and put them to use as a means of self-expression and to communicate feelings with the world.

With some guidance and encouragement and using a variety of methods, the results of these efforts are magnificent. Many of the artists paint with their hands, but others with their mouths or their feet. Many are blind or suffer from mental disabilities yet the drive for self-expression produces some of the most beautiful and intricate work anyone can imagine.

As the WebdesignerDepot comments on their website: “Their achievements are arguably epic in the face of the adversity that they face.

We hope that the artists in this post inspire your designs and make you look at adversity in any field as a surmountable obstacle.”

Works Cited:

Bern, Marija. (2020). We Can’t Believe What These 37 Artists Can Do Despite Their Disabilities.
Retrieved from:https://www.boredpanda.com/

Passionate People Staff. (2020). 5 World-Famous Artists That Had Disabilities. Retrieved from: https://www.passionatepeople.invacare.eu.com/5-world-famous-artists-disabilities/ 06/29/20

Standberry, Lee. (July 10, 2009). Top 10 Disabled Musicians. Retrieved from: https://www.toptenz.net/top-10-disabled-musicians.php 07/01/20

Ackerman, Courtney, E, MSc. (2020) What is Self-Expression and How to Foster It? (20 Activities + Examples). Retrieved from: https://positivepsychology.com/self-expression/

Additional Information:

http://www.disabledartistsguild.com
https://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2010/03/the-amazing-art-of-disabled-artists/
http://www.anjali.co.uk/
https://www.disabilityartsinternational.org/artists/profiles/anjali-dance-company/
https://www.axisdance.org/
https://www.thehumanarvels.com/charles-tripp-the-armless-wonder/
https://news.uga.edu/hands-in-theater-for-deaf-hearing/

Prejudice/Ableism: Too old to work or just not capable.

Ableism is defined as, “discrimination in favor of able-bodied people.” Ableism is most often associated with disabilities, but it can also be applied to people who we call seniors in our society.

One question which may come to mind is, who set the retirement age at 65? The answer may be somewhat of a surprise.  On his blog, Tim Kastelle posted, “The age of 65 was originally selected as the time for retirement by the “Iron Chancellor,” Otto von Bismark of Germany when he introduced a social security system to appeal to the German working class and combat the power of the Socialist Party in Germany during the late 1800s. Somewhat cynically, Bismark knew that the program would cost little because the average German worker never reached 65, and many of those who did, lived only a few years beyond that age. When the United States finally passed a social security law in 1935 (more than 55 years after the conservative German chancellor introduced it in Germany), the average life expectancy in America was only 61.7 years.”  Today, after more than 80 years, the department of social security calculates,

“A man reaching age 65 today can expect to live, on average, until age 84.3.

A woman turning age 65 today can expect to live, on average, until age 86.6.”

Many of us spend considerable time planning for retirement at 65, but for many, it may not turn out to be all we expected.  People come out of retirement for many reasons and in an article on The Street web site Kathryn Tuggle lists five of the most common:

  1. Pursue an encore career. An encore career allows retirees to pursue a profession that may boost their financial stability while also providing personal fulfillment.
  2. Have a purpose. A recent Encore.org study revealed more than 4.5 million people between the ages of 50 and 70 are involved in encore careers. Popular sectors for these careers include public service, education, or other opportunities that allow people to give back.  
  3. Stay physically active. Very few people plan to retire and just do nothing. Oftentimes people who leave the workforce find that they not only miss the routine of having somewhere to be every morning but also crave the physical exercise associated with climbing stairs, walking around the office, or traveling to meetings and conferences.
  4. Understand your financial need.  Some retirees may not need additional funds for themselves but may go back to work due to unexpected family expenses.
  5. Keep the mind sharp. Doctors recommend that retirees keep their minds active to avoid premature memory loss. According to the Center on Longevity at Stanford University, work plays a key role in keeping the mind functioning optimally.”
Jimmy Carter working with
Habitat for Humanity

So does being past retirement age mean we have no longer have value in the workplace? Maybe we should be asking that question of former President Jimmy Carter, who, now in his 90’s, is still active in “Habitat for Humanity,” while fighting cancer, and if that wasn’t enough still remains politically active. Or maybe we might want to consider the late professor Stephen Hawking who passed away at 72 and despite his age and a debilitating illness, continued teaching as well as working on his theories relating to the universe. These are just two famous examples of why hiring practices need revision. No one knows how much talent and knowledge has been lost due to the practice of ableism. These underutilized workers are a potentially untapped resource of talent. 

Preview in new tab

Age is not the only concern

The US Dept. of labor posted the following information relating the employment rates for people with a disability:

April 2018 Disability Employment Statistics
Ages 16 years and over

Labor Force Participation

  • People with disabilities: 20.9%
  • People without disabilities: 68.3%

Unemployment Rate

  • People with disabilities: 8.0%
  • People without disabilities: 3.5%
Stephen Hawking at his office at the department of applied mathematics and theoretical physics at Cambridge University in 2005. Photograph: Murdo Macleod/The Guardian

It is important to recognize that what is missing in these statistics is the number of talented individuals with a disability who have simply given up trying to find work or are forced to rely on family members to subsidize what they receive from social programs. In his book, Hidden Talent, Mark Lengnick-Hall wrote: “Most people with disabilities want to work. Sixty-seven percent of people with disabilities who are unemployed say they prefer to be working” (p. 3)

On their website, the Pew Research Center states: “As the year 2011 began on Jan. 1, the oldest members of the Baby Boom generation celebrated their 65th birthday. In fact, on that day, today, and for every day for the next 19 years, 10,000 baby boomers will reach age 65. The aging of this huge cohort of Americans (26% of the total U.S. population are Baby Boomers) will dramatically change the composition of the country. Currently, just 13% of Americans are ages 65 and older. By 2030, when all members of the Baby Boom generation have reached that age, fully 18% of the nation will be at least that age, according to Pew Research Center population projections. But don’t tell Baby Boomers that they are old. The typical Boomer believes that old age does not begin until age 72”.

What is interesting is that one of the concerns with this mass retirement is the possibility of a business Brain Drain. By Brain Drain, we are referring to the loss of those skilled employees who have experience and have been successful at their jobs. They are a potential resource.

When exploring the potential of employees, perhaps one great loss to the workforce and society is the 60%+ people with disabilities who are unemployed.  Approximately 1 in 5 Americans or 20% of the population has a disability. Lengnick-Hall states: “72% of working people with disabilities have high school diplomas or a higher education. However, of those with a college degree, 55% are unemployed, compared to 14% of college-educated people without disabilities.”

Why don’t more employers hire people with disabilities? Some of the reasons are based on ignorance, some are based on stereotyping or prejudice. Many of the reasons date back to the industrial revolution where the value was placed on physical abilities. The age of the assembly line brought long hours of strenuous work, and any sort of industrial accident resulting in a disability went unforgiven.

There are many negative attitudes or misunderstandings about hiring a person with a disability such as:

  • Many employers believe that hiring people with disabilities will result in higher costs in health insurance claims.
  • Employees with disabilities have more accidents at work.
  • Employees with disabilities are less productive compared to non-disabled employees.
  • There is an increase in sick time and a lack of reliability among employees with disabilities.
  • The cost of associated complying with accessibilities and job accommodations out weights the value of hiring such employees.

Many companies use the strategy of ignoring applicants with disabilities in favor of the non-disabled applicants. Lengnick-Hall warns: ”Of course the potential costs of such a strategy include getting sued for discrimination, loss of reputation in the community resulting in bad publicity, and perhaps loss of customers with disabilities who find other companies with whom to do business”. (p. 5)

The Jobs Accommodation Network (JAN) has been involved in ongoing research for many years and; “the study results consistently showed that the benefits employers receive from making workplace accommodations far outweigh the low cost. Employers reported that providing accommodations resulted in such benefits as retaining valuable employees, improving productivity and morale, reducing workers’ compensation and training costs, and improving company diversity. These benefits were obtained with little investment. The employers in the study reported that a high percentage (58%) of accommodations cost absolutely nothing to make ($0), while the rest of the accommodations made had a typically cost only $500”.

This all comes down to, in many cases, business just focusing on the cost of workplace accommodations, which is shown to be low cost, but have high returns. There are organizations out there like JAN that help employers with accommodation concerns and remind business owners that the ADA prohibits discrimination based on assumptions, stereotypes, or any myths or presumption an employer may have about hiring people with disabilities. Business also should be aware the EEOC is targeting these cases.

Inclusiveness

Before we can begin to have equal opportunity in employment it is important to realize that currently little is being done to cause effective change. The current efforts have done little to bring about change in attitudes and hiring practices. As reported by in Ability Magazine: “Numeric goals being set by companies to hire so-many of this type of person, and so-many of another type, work only to create a foundation for future failure”.

It may seem like a simple matter to hire people from a minority group, but it is a different matter to treat them the same as you would any other employee. The answer to this dilemma is to create an environment of inclusiveness, which is to include many different types of people and treating them all fairly and equally.

Working towards inclusiveness is not necessarily an easy task for a business to accomplish. Changing begins with management, they set the tone with trust and respect. From the start, business owners and managers must be ensured they want to create an inclusive environment for the right reasons. If the goal is only to appear as a positive and progressive business or to meet quotas, so as not to find yourself in court with the EEOC, failure will be the result.

However, referring back to the Ability magazine article: “if you want to truly be a part of a positive future, to benefit from the life experience and skills of all people, regardless of sex, gender or whether they have a disability, then your company will reap the benefits. Culture is key. To reach true inclusiveness, work toward cultural change to find the path to truly combat discrimination.”

The simplest step is to hire people with disabilities, but do it for their skills which your business can use. Following that then take the next step not just to meet any accommodations, but as with all employees, they are made part of the team and show thoughtful consideration and respect for them and their ideas and suggestions. Let their voice be heard. 

One last comment from Ability magazine, which reports: “Companies that were the most inclusive of disabled persons attained 28% higher revenue, 30% greater profit margins, and twice the net income of their peers during a study period of 2015 through 2018.”

Not only can rethinking hiring practices the right thing to do, but as Mar Sagar wrote in his blog: “`doing the right thing’  can frequently turn out to be a profitable business decision.”

References

Heimlich, Russell. (December 29, 2010)Baby Boomers Retire.  Pew Research Center 1615 L St. NW, Suite 800 Washington, DC.Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2010/12/29/baby-boomers-retire/

Job Accommodation Network, (2018), Benefits and Costs of Accommodations, Retrieved from: https://askjan.org/topics/costs.cfm

Sagar, Mark, (2019), The Business Case For Hiring People with Disabilities=Comprehensive EAP, Retrieved from:  https://compeap.com/the-business-case-for-hiring-people-with-disabilities/

Kastelle, Tim. (2018) Why is the Retirement Age 65 in most developed countries?  Retrieved from: http://timkastelle.org/blog/2010/06/why-is-the-retirement-age-65/

Lengnick-Hall, Mark, L. (2007)  Hidden Talent, How Companies Hire, Retain, and Benefit from People with Disabilities. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.

Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2018) Disability Statistics. Retrieved from: United States Department of Labor, Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. https://www.dol.gov/odep/

Tuggle, Kathryn. (April 17, 2015) 5 Reasons You’ll Return to Work After You Retire. Retrieved from: The Street. https://www.thestreet.com/story/13110741/1/5-reasons-you-may-go-back-to-work-after-retiring-even-if-you-swear-you-wont.html

U.S. Dept. of Social Security. Benefits Planner|Life Expectancy. Social Security Administration, Maryland, Baltimore. Retrieved from: https://www.ssa.gov/planners/lifeexpectancy.html

Source of Images/Photos:

Diversity Plus, (2018) Diversity, Retrieved from:
https://diversityplus.com/images/others/dp1532016033191.jpg

Jimmy Carter, Retrieved from:
https://www-tc.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/files/2015/11/jimmy-carter-habitat-for-humanity-600.jpg

Professor Stephen Hawking, Retrieved from:
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/mar/14/stephen-hawking-obituary

For additional information on this topic you may wish to visit:

https://askjan.org/info-by-role.cfm#for-emplouers

https://socialwork.rutgers.edu/news-events/news/disability-and-unemployment

https://www.thearc.org/what-we-do/public-policy/policy-issues/employment

https://www.careeronestop.org/ResourcesFor/WorkersWithDisabilities?workers-with-disabilities.aspx

https://abilitymagazine.com

https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/awareness/famous/ep.php

https://www.bls.gov/news.release/disabl.nr0.htm

https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t06.htm

https://www.judsoncenter.org/disability-services/employment-services/employers/the-business-case-to-hiring-people-with-disabilities


The Right to Vote for the Disabled

You’re Not a Second Class Citizen

Vote Pins. Retrieved from:
https://news.yahoo.com/
primary-election-2020-vote-mail-
174928755.html

Now that the primaries are over it is time to begin preparing for the elections in November. As an important portion of the American voting population, it is vital that those voters living with a disability recognize that their vote is powerful and an important voice.

Voting, as Kay Maxwell defines: “Voting is a process by which a person or group of people expresses an opinion formally or officially”. She continues on to say: “voting usually refers to the act of citizens choosing candidates for public office or deciding on public issues and laws. In the United States, people vote at the local, state, and federal (national) levels”.

Historical Background on the Right to Vote

As a young country with a population of about 4 million people eligible to vote it seems only about .03% or 120,000 actually voted. At that time, voting was restricted to free white males who were property owners and who met particular religious prerequisites.

By the 1860’s voting rights became more extensive with nearly every state allowing all white males, 21 years old or older, voting rights.

At the end of the Civil War the 15th Amendment to the Constitution provided for voting rights for all men regardless of race. It would not be until the passage of the 1965 Voting rights Act that blacks truly gained the right to vote in the South.

After a long political fight in 1920, women won the right to vote with the addition of 19th Amendment to the Constitution. In 1971 the 26th Amendment lowered the voting age to 18 years of age.

It should be explained that prior to the Civil War voting was not private. People would vote by a show of hands or voice their choice out loud. The introduction of print ballots became popular after the war, but these were often in different colors and shapes which signified the different candidates. It was not until the 1890s that use of Australian ballot, where all the candidates were printed on one ballot by the government that voting became truly secret. For those living with disabilities voting rights, sadly, have been slow in coming. As records illustrated on the US Department of Justice website: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) contains provisions relevant to the voting rights of people with

disabilities. The VRA requires election officials to allow a voter who is blind or has another disability to receive assistance from a person of the voter’s choice (other than the voter’s employer or its agent or an officer or agent of voters union). The VRA also prohibits conditioning the right to vote on a citizen being able to read or write, attaining a particular level of education, or passing an interpretation ‘test’ “.

The Voting Accessibility for Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984 (VAEHA) was passed. This act required accessible polling places for federal elections for the elderly and individuals with disabilities. Additionally, voters are to be provided with alternate means of voting on Election Day.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 provided protection for people with disabilities similar to those for individuals based on race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religious beliefs. The ADA title II requires State and Local governments (public entities) to ensure that people with disabilities have equal and full opportunity to vote. Title II of the ADA applies to all aspects of voting, including voter registration, site selection, and casting of ballots. This applies not only to Election Day, but during any early voting process.

The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA) among other things, the aim is to increase the historically low registration rates among persons with disabilities. The act also provides for public assistance or state-funded programs that primarily serve persons with disabilities to also provide the opportunity to register to vote in federal elections.

The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) requires jurisdictions responsible for conducting federal elections to provide at least one accessible voting system for persons with disabilities at each polling place in federal elections. The accessible voting system must provide the same opportunity for access and participation, including privacy and independence that other voters receive.

As of September 15, 2015 polling officials may allow those with a physical disability or a voter over the age of 70 to move to the front of the line at polling places if requested by the voter.

In 2020 Senator Bob Casey (PA) and Amy Klobuchar (MN) have introduced the Accessible Voting Act (AVA), meant to address the needs of voters with disabilities and to ensure they have equal access to the vote on Election Day and beyond.
See: https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/116/s3206

 You are Not a Second Class Citizen

On the CDC website it is reported that: “one in 4 U.S. adults-61 million Americans have a disability that impacts major life activities.”  Yet according to the website www.aapd.com: “16 million people with disabilities voted in the November 2016 election.” That equates to approximately 26.3% of the American population living with a disability.

Despite all of the history of struggles for equality in voting and the resulting changes, the website governing.com finds: “voting among the disabled is on the decline.” In the face of all the important issues confronting all US voters in the past elections, it is disheartening that voter turnout for those who may be affected the most by many of these issues is on the decline.

What is causing this lack of enthusiasm? There is much speculation as to why voter turnout for the disabled is on the decline. In an article written by Matt Vasilogambros, he has found barriers or lack of accessibility and untrained poll workers are the biggest contributors.  Vasilogambros quotes Michelle Bishop, a voting rights advocate, for the Nation Disability Rights Network who reveals: “under increasing pressure to oversee a smooth, secure election, untrained poll workers have discouraged the use of accessible voting machines, leaving voters with disabilities behind.” Bishop also recalls: “in the last election, for example, a voter called her to report that a machine was placed in the corner, turned off, with a flower wreath hung on it.” Bishop was believes: “The message is: You’re not wanted here.”

“A study by the Government Accounting Office (GAO), found that nearly two-thirds of the 137 polling places inspected on Election Day 2016 had at least one impediment to people with disabilities. In 2008 presidential election, it was fewer than half. The GAO also reported that State inspectors of voting accessibility had fallen nationally over the same time”, Vasilogambros wrote.

Vasilogambros goes on to disclose that: “Among the infractions: The accessible voting machine wasn’t set up and powered on, the earphones weren’t functioning, the voting system wasn’t wheelchair-accessible, or the voting system didn’t provide the same privacy as standard voting stations.”

The bottom line here is simple, it’s not that complicated. If you’re disabled, you are NOT a second class citizen, it’s time for you to speak up, voting is your right and so many issues apply to you. It is time for you to self-advocate, raise a stink, call your representatives and call the US Department of Justice to demand your rights, if, for any reason, you are unable to vote. Don’t just complain about the system or the people in charge if you’re not willing to do something. Remember so many before you fought for your rights; this year is the thirtieth anniversary of the American with Disabilities Act, let the world know, show them what you’re worth, make yourself known, it’s your turn.

Additional Information:

AAPD Statistics & Data, Statistics about the disability community as a powerful voting bloc.https://www.aapd.com/advocacy/voting/statistics/

Power: The Disability Vote
https://www.aapd.com/advocacy/voting/revup-summit/

The Right to Vote
https://disabilityjustice.org/right-to-vote/

Register! Educate! Vote! Use your power. The Disability Vote Counts.
The Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
https://www.aapd.com/

U.S. Department of Justice
Civil Rights Division
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Voting Section – Room 7254 NWB
Washington, D.C. 20530
(800) 253-3931 (voice/TTY)
https://www.justice.gov/contact-us

ADA Polling Checklist
https://www.ada.gov/votingchecklist.htm

Solutions for Five Common ADA Access Problems at Polling Places
https://www.ada.gov/ada_voting/voting_solutions_ta/polling_place_solutions.htm

Works Cited:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (August 16, 2018). 1 in 4 US adults live with a disability. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2018/p0816-disability.html

Disability Rights and Resources.   (2020). The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984. Retrieved from: https://drradvocates.org/voting-accessibility-for-the-elderly-and-handicapped-act/

Maxwell, Kay, J.  (2020). Voting in the United States. Retrieved from: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/voting-united-states/

Taylor, Danielle, M.  (November 29, 2018). Americans with Disabilities: 2014.  Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2018/demo/p70-152.html

U,S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section (September 2014). The Americans with Disabilities Act and Other Federal Laws Protecting the Rights of Voters with Disabilities. Retrieved from: https://www.ada.gov/ada_voting/ada_voting_ta.htm

Vasilogrmbros, Matt. (February 1, 2018). How Voters With Disabilities Are Blocked From the Ballot Box. Retrieved from: https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/02/01/how-voters-with-disabilities-are-blocked-from-the-ballot-box

Vasilgrmbros, Matt. (2020). Why Is Disabled Voter Turnout on the Decline? Retrieved from: https://www.governing.com/topics/politics/sl-disabled-polls-voters.html

Aging In Place

Be Pro-Active About the Future

Aging in Place and Being Pro-Active

Growing up I was led to believe that at a point in our lives we would enter what is called the golden years.  I have come to believe that whoever came up with this idea lied. They’re not golden, they’re rusted.

Bust of elderly Roman man,marble 40BC, Albertinum, Dresden.
Retrieved from: https://wikipedia.org

Not to be morbid, but as a realist, it is hard enough to be in the later stages of life where getting out of bed is sometimes a challenge, bending over to pick something up, walking and even our reflexes and thought processes begin to slow down. Many

of us begin spending time thinking about our youth, the way it was and begin thinking about our own mortality.  Combine these factors with the thought of spending our remaining years in a nursing home being care for by strangers in unfamiliar surroundings is not an encouraging scenario!

Now that we are in the middle of a dangerous health crisis which seems to affect older adults more severely than younger people and will undoubtedly have an influence on the future life styles of our population, our aging choices become even more complicated. For those at a point in life where planning for the future anticipating those Golden Years, these decisions have become much more complex and if there is a family element to consider. Does the senior go to a nursing home? Do they move in with a family member? Or do they choose Aging in Place?

This article is not intended to endorse or discredit any one option; the intent is simply to try to explain one of the choices available.

Aging in Place

According to Seniorliving.org:

“Aging in place means a person making a conscious decision to stay in the inhabitation of their choice for as long as they can with the comforts that are important to them. As they age, these may include adding supplementary services to facilitate their living conditions and maintain their quality of life.

Aging in place refers to a person in their golden years when they can live in the residence of their preference and are still able to access the things they require and used to in their daily life.

Some people may confuse the issue by thinking that aging in place will fix the things that they may have or problems that may arise. Aging in place can only address those problems that have already been planned for in the person’s life. Aging in place challenges refers to the health, social and emotional needs an elderly person may need and such needs that can be addressed to help them maintain a well-rounded life, in the residence of their choice.

When to Start Planning:

Aging in place means a person being able to live in the place of their choice without losing their quality of life when they reach senior age. But ideally what aging in place should be addressing is not just to maintain the quality of life that the person is used to, but also to make it better whenever possible.

To live out later years as comfortably as possible, financial and economic plans should be put in place from your earliest working years. Although Aging in place refers to persons of retirement age, it should concern everyone as soon as possible from the earliest years of one’s career. Plans for retirement should thus be created as early as possible and changed, revised and adjusted according to changing needs and requirements.”

There is no place like home:

For a great many people the prospect of spending their remaining years in their own home has tremendous appeal. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines aging in place as: “The ability to live in one’s own home and community safely, independently and comfortably, regardless of age, income or ability level.”

As one begins to think about retirement planning, the home one chooses to live in should be part of that planning. Be Pro-Active may be the best advice anyone can give.

When considering aging in place, a key amount of the planning strategy has to include the age of one currently owned home. 

  • The median age of homes in the U.S. is approximately 37 years old, depending on what area of the US you live in. Homes in the Northeast have the oldest median age; approximately 57 to 58 years of age. The youngest areas, such as Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, may average 20 to 25 years old.
  • 38% of sales are to 1st-time buyers; with a median age of 31 years old.
  • Median age of repeat buyers is 52 years old. (https://buyersask.com/articles-of-interest/age-of-houses-in-the-us-whats-the-average-age/ )
  • The American with Disabilities Act was passed in 1990. (29 years old)
U.S. Showing areas with newest homes in the west and south east, the northeastern areas with the oldest homes

This means that because so many homes were constructed before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act planning to renovate in many cases becomes more complicated. Planning for this scenario will be required before evaluating if remaining in your own home is the best and safest option.

It may seem obvious to most, but one of the critical elements in being pro-active in planning for senior years is health. We all hope to remain active through our ‘Golden Years’, it doesn’t always happen as we would wish.

Someone once said ‘youth is wasted on the young’, and as we age one may discover deterioration in our vision or hearing. Or perhaps our mobility isn’t entirely what it should to be and one may find balance less than it was a few years ago. As if all these possibilities weren’t enough, our joints and muscles fail to operate as smoothly as in our younger years and because of the possibility of memory loss we are really not exactly sure when our joints were not uncomfortable to move.  The majority of these prospects sound unappealing but these are normal processes as we age. Regardless, even in the case of a more unfortunate extreme health change, by being pro-active in home planning the opportunity to remain at home is still possible. Below are just a few examples:

  • In the case of decline in vision: are all controls clear and easy to read, such as the knobs on stove and oven. Is there ample lighting, especially on stairways?
  • When discussing stairways there are multiple considerations. For those who are dealing with mobility challenges stairs are always obstacles to overcome.
  • In addition to stairs, throw rugs, uneven flooring, cords, objects on the floor and many more factors related to movement have to be compensated for.
  • Door knobs and faucet fixtures should be the push/pull type rather than the twist variety.
  • Tubs/showers must be addressed. Are they too high or is there a zero clearance shower. Have grab bars been installed and a high rise toilet?

These are only a few of the factors that will need to be weighed when considering aging at home. If you are remolding before planning on retiring, it would be best to hire a builder familiar with accessibilities and you may want to first check with you local office for the aging, public health office, local senior center, AARP or your regional independent living center for more information.

There are many choices as we age and aging in place is just one. Each individual is different as are health needs and housing requirements. There are many options to explore, but a few things are certain, we are all aging and, according to the National Institute of Aging:

  • America’s 65-and-over population is projected to nearly double over the next three decades, from 48 million to 88 million by 2050. (https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/worlds-older-population-grows-dramatically)
  • More than 3 in 4 people — 77 percent want age at home.
  • 36 percent plan to modify their homes to enable them to stay in a familiar, safe environment as they age and we will all face these options someday. 

Consider the shortage in long term health care facilities, as shown in the table:

Table illustration of a dramatic rise in demand in health care facilities, while at the same time showing a decrease in the number of facilities. Retrieved from: https://blog.soliant.com/healthcare-news/americas-nuring-shorage-by-the-numbers/

Bearing this shortage in mind and the projected increase in senior population and the aches and pains you may feel getting up in the morning, it is reasonable to draw the conclusion that it is never too soon for a family to begin planning and being pro-active for those ’Golden’ years. Maybe aging in place is right for you.

One final note; it seems it was a moment ago my wife and I had our first child. I blinked and now we have three children and my grandson is graduating high school. It all happens faster than you can imagine so it is never too soon to begin thinking about your later years.

Additional Information:

Home Modifications
https://www.aginginplace.org/home-modifications/

AARP Home Fit Guide
https://www.aarp.org/livable-communities/info-2014/aarp-home-fit-guide-aging-in-place.html

Guide to Caring for Elderly Parents
https://www.aginginplace.org/a-guide-to-caring-for-elderly-parents/

A Seniors Guide to Growing Old in Your Own Home
https://www.simplyss.com/blog/aging-in-place-a-seniors-guide/

Works Cited:

Witt, Scott and Hoyt, Jeff. (March 13, 2020). Aging In Place – What Does Aging In Place Really. Retrieved from: https://www.seniorliving.org/aging-in-place/

AARP Bulletin. (October 10, 2018). Most Retirees Prefer to Stay Put. Retrieved from:
https://www.aarp.org/retirement/planning-for-retirement/info-2018/retirees-age-in-place-aarp-study.html

 Binette,  Joanne and Vasold, Kerri. (August 2018, Revised July 2019). 2018 Home and Community Preferences: A National Survey of Adults Ages 18-Plus. Retrieved from: https://www.aarp.org/research/topics/community/info-2018/2018-home-community-preference.html?CMP=RDRCT-PRI-OTHER-LIVABLECOMMUNITIES-032218

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Healthy Places Terminology.  Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/terminology.htm

Home Builders Association. (2019).The Age of the Housing Stock by State – Where are the Elderly Homes? Retrieved from: https://springfieldhba.com/the-age-of-the-housing-stock-by-state-where-are-the-elderly-homes/
Cire, Barbara. (March 28, 2016). World’s older population grows dramatically. Retrieved from:https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/worlds-older-population-grows-dramatically

Trying to Recognizing Dementia

Where Do They Go

Growing up, everyone who knew my father considered him Iron Man and the one who would definitely be the last man standing among our family members. He was a big guy, physically strong, and although he never finished high school, had more common sense than anyone I have ever met. He could build anything, loved the outdoors, especially fishing, and possessed a kindness and understanding which he put a great deal of effort into hiding.

Drawing of an old man diagnosed with senile dementia

Later in his life he began to have a little trouble remembering things. These hiccups in his memory progressed to the point where he would confuse me with my brother and mixed up his grandchildren’s names. Perhaps the strangest occurrence was when he took my mother to play bingo one evening and when it came time to pick her up, he wasn’t there. After calling the local police, he was found just driving around the city with no idea where he was going. He wasn’t lost or driving recklessly he just out driving.

Conversations with him became more and more difficult, he would drift off and begin talking about events which took place during his youth.

For many of us, the people we have always known suddenly begin to change or disappear. Where to they go? Why? What is happening? What are the signs they are leavings us?

I am just one of the millions of Americans who was forced to come to terms with an older relative afflicted with Dementia. What is happening to these people we care about can be confusing and unsettling.

Dementia is an umbrella term used to describe a decline in memory or brain function that impacts an individual’s daily life. This is different from the normal decrease in short-term memory most people experience as they age. Dementia is caused by changes in the brain which impact cognitive function, and it can be associated with types of dementia many of us are familiar with, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. There are a number of causes and different type of dementia. For additional information, visit: https://www.dementia.org/causes

According to the website Dementia.org, there are seven stages of dementia and they state, “in most cases, dementia is irreversible and incurable. However, with an early diagnosis and proper care, the progression of some forms of dementia can be managed and slowed down”.

As the Dementia.org website also points out: “Learning the stages of dementia can help with identifying signs and symptoms early on”. This knowledge can assist those affected with the early stages to get proper care and can aid caregivers in understanding what to expect in future stages.

Stage 1: (stages 1-3 known as pre-dementia stages)

  • Normal functioning stage.
  • Patient doesn’t show noteworthy memory problems.

Stage 2: Age Associated Memory Impairment

  • Occasional forgetting where an object was placed.
  • Forgetting familiar names.

Although this is common as a normal part of the aging process, this decline in memory can be an early sign of degenerated dementia.

Stage 3: Mild Cognitive Impairment

This is the stage where clear reasoning problems begin to manifest themselves.

  • Getting lost easily.
  • A marked reduction in work productivity.
  • Misplacing or losing important items.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Frequent inability to remember friends or family member names.
  • Struggling to remember instructions or information from a book.

This is the stage where the individual may begin to have minor anxiety as the symptoms are now beginning to interfere with their life. It is at this stage of the disease people are encouraged to seek a clinical diagnosis.

Stage 4:

At this stage, the sufferer begins to become socially withdrawn and has signs of personality and mood changes. Denial of the condition is common.

  • Decreased knowledge of current/or recent events.
  • Difficulty remembering things about one’s personal history.
  • Inability to handle finances, or to do any planning.
  • Disorientation.
  • Recognizing people and faces becomes a struggle.

At this stage, patients will have no trouble with familiar faces and familiar locations, but often patients will avoid challenging situations to prevent stress and anxiety or to hide condition.

At this point my father would not give up his driver’s license, but gave up is car. He was relying more and more on my mother to remember people and names. His memories of his own life were being distorted. My brother took over my parent’s finances and was scheduling doctor’s appointments and ordering prescriptions. Perhaps the hardest change for all of us, was his change in temperament. He became aggressive, he unexpectedly would disagree with anything and at the same time gave little thought to what he said to people or how he said it. In general, he could become mean at times. He was in a nursing home now and occasionally was confused as to how and why he there, but he would forget being there was his idea. I wish we had known more about dementia at the time, it may have helped us to understand.

Stage 5:

At this stage some assistance is required to carry out daily activities.

  • Inability to remember major details such as close family member’s names or home addresses and phone numbers.
  • Disorientation about time and place.
  • Trouble or inability to make decisions.
  • Forget basic information about themselves.

Although stage 5 can interfere with daily life styles, those with 5th stage dementia do not seem to need assistance with basic functions such as using the bathroom or eating. Most still have the ability to remember their name and the name of their spouse.

Stage 6:

Entering stage 6, patients begin to forget the names of their spouse, their children or primary caregivers and in all likelihood will require full time care.

  • Delusional behavior
  • Obsessive behaviors and symptoms.
  • Anxiety, aggression and agitation.
  • Loss of will power.

Patients may begin to wander, have difficulty sleeping and in some cases will experience hallucinations.

Before my father’s passing, he was well into stage 6. He was having difficulties sleeping and was starting to have hallucinations. He at times had aggressive behavior and anxiety as well as obsessive behavior.

Stage 7:

Along with the loss of motor skills, patients will progressively lose the ability to speak during the course of stage 7. Loved ones and caregivers will need to help the patient with walking, eating and use of the bathroom.

Most cases of dementia may be reversible. Sometimes dementia-like conditions may be caused by underlying conditions which may be treatable.

On the Dementia.org website they write: “The more aware you are of these steps, the quicker you will be able to react and seek help, either for yourself or for a loved one.”

Self Help:

For the many forms of dementia, is there anything we can do to help ourselves to lessen our chances of developing dementia? There are no guarantees but the following are suggestions which may help. Research suggest:

  1. Stay physically Active
  2. Stay socially active
  3. Participate in mentally stimulating activities i.e. learn languages, continue education
  4. Quit smoking and minimize drug use
  5. Eat a healthy diet (research has found that a Mediterranean style diet is most beneficial)
  6. Manage cardiovascular diseases

Dementia.org states: “These measures aren’t only for individuals who want to prevent dementia, these life style changes are also beneficial for those who are already diagnosed, as positive changes can slow the progression of dementia.”

Hereditary:

One final comment for anyone, who, like myself, wondered, is dementia passed on through our DNA?

According to University Healthnews.com: The more family members you have who are affected by certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s, the greater your risk becomes. So, strictly speaking, is dementia hereditary?

Dementia statistics suggest that genetic background is certainly a factor – but not the only factor”.

Please Note: The article was written to inform and for awareness. SAIL is not a Healthcare provider, nor is any member of its staff. The information provided is not meant to be a substitute for diagnosis and treatment by a Physician, licensed professional, or therapist. Any information provided in this article is the opinions of the author and not that of the author’s employer or the employer’s staff.

For Additional Information Visit:

Molli, Grossman, PhD. (2018). Stages of Dementia. https://www.kindlycare.com/stages-of-dementia/

Works Cited:

Healthcare Brands. (2020). Dementia. Retrieved from: https://www.dementia.org

Vitek, Jimison, Susan. (2018). Is Dementia Hereditary? Genetics May Play a Role, But Other Factors Contribute. Retrieved from: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/memory/is-dementia-hereditary/

Image Source:

Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia

Teaching Special Needs Students during School Closures

In the past month or so school administrators and teachers have been contending with how to continue education programs for students with special needs. There are many questions associated with this topic and they entail multiple components, not just the educational aspects.

Image of a Hand
Special Kids
Special Needs

Special education has always been an interest of mine. I am not an expert by any stretch of the imagination and find the more I research and learn the more questions come to mind.  Technology offers so many possibilities but there are many issues yet to be resolved. A good example of this is the problem of on line accessibility for all ranges of learning disabilities (LD). Technology alone cannot meet all of the needs, and many small, rural schools lack the community infrastructure for connectivity in outlying areas.  In some cases, there may be budget constraints. 

As the coronavirus spread and states began to shut down schools, many educators found themselves scrambling to find ways to complete the school year. As for the LD students, in an article on the Atlantic Website, Faith Hill reports:  “For students with special needs-roughly 7 million in the U.S. ages 3 to 21-the coronavirus pandemic, and its attendant school closures, can be especially scary. At school, they get individualized attention from professionals who are trained in and deeply familiar with their unique ways of thinking, perceiving and processing.” Hill feels: “No amount of love and care at home can turn the average parent into a special-education teacher overnight. Nor can it enable them to practice occupational speech, or physical therapy-services that are provided in many schools.”

Parents who have had successful careers in areas other than education suddenly find themselves with the demanding task of maintaining their special needs child’s education. Homemakers, businesspersons, construction workers and factory workers with no psychology, speech therapy, physical therapy, or educational training suddenly find themselves as teachers at home. Working from home, in isolation, parents are asked to become special education teachers and wrestle with the dilemma trying to fill the gap of continuing their children’s education.

For many LD students using such online tools such as Zoom and Microsoft teams may not be accessible for a variety of reasons. Regarding this topic, Hill finds: “Students with disabilities often use assistive technology; for instance, a student with visual impairments might use screen-reader software to have text read aloud or a braille reader to read text themselves. But a lot of online platforms aren’t compatible with assistive technology-and even when they are, other problems frequently arise.”

During the extended shutdown many parents and special education teachers are worried about backslide or regression in academic progress. This occurrence already happens yearly, which Hill calls “melt of skills” or “summer side”

Parents who have taken on the role of teacher for their children need helpful advice. Access to special education information at home seems to be sparse at best and if the family is not tech savvy or has no internet access, they may find themselves in a depressing, impossible position.

While looking for suggestions for this article, I asked for some advice from Chad Shippee, a principal of a small rural school in upstate New York. Mr. Shippee responded with a few pointers he shares with parents:

1. “Keep open lines of communication with any school personnel that your child worked with when school was in session. Resource, therapy, and counseling should ideally be available, even if done remotely. These professionals can also help with some suggestions on how to make things go smoothly at home.”

Better together
Parents and Teachers

         2. “Keep a structured schedule. Many students with disabilities work best with structure and know what to expect when one is followed.”

         3. “Don’t be afraid to take a break, or pick and choose what you can and can’t do with your child. No schoolwork is worth the anxiety and stress that can impede on your home life with your child. Do what you can, and just do your best.”

Mr. Shippee also commented: “I see these as the big points. Especially number 1.”

There are a number of web-based articles providing some suggestions. For example, Theresa Harrington has written an interesting article on the Times-Standard website in which she provides five basic tips:

Father and daughter
doing school
work
  1. “Do not try to replicate school at home. Home-schoolers are not even really home-schooling right now because normally, our world is our classroom. Think about it as quarantine schooling.” Remember you are a parent, not a teacher. As Harrington goes on to explain: “It’s going to be messy. Don’t worry about it.” The majority are in the same boat, we are all trying to survive, and keeping money coming in during this pandemic is the priority, and Harrington realistically reminds us that during this time: “Academics may need to come second.”
  2. “Be gentle with yourself, your kids, your partner, and your coworkers. This is unprecedented. Both parents should share in the duties, whether for homeschooling, childcare, or housework.” Harrington mentions concern about “women” in this situation “taking it all on.” 
  3. “Ask your children what they would like to learn. This is a wonderful opportunity to not just do worksheets. Do real life. Make a meal, make a bed, fold laundry, serve meals, clean up, do chores, and do repairs around the house. This helps parents and gives kids skills in gardening, sewing, and fixing things, along with reading, playing, inventing, building things, and singing, dancing, and experimenting.”
  4. “Recognize that learning doesn’t just happen with a teacher or a book at a desk. It can happen anywhere. Children are learning even when they’re playing with Legos.”  This brings up an interesting point (having children myself) why do Legos now come in pre-defined sets such as “Star Wars” themes or pre-designed boats or planes. Why not just throw away the directions and pictures, give them a box of Legos and let their imaginations, creativity and problem-solving skills go wild and develop. One may be surprised by what children using their own minds can come with. Another idea is to give a child some matchbox cars and a box of sidewalk chalk and watch what they do with it. I have watched my grandson spend all day drawing out city streets and parking lots on a section concrete. We need to look at things through their eyes, as Harrington points out: “You don’t have to teach your children everything.”
  5. Be flexible. Learning doesn’t have to take place during regular school hours. If you’re staying home and working, maybe you can shift school work to weekends, evenings or afternoons.” Harrington also suggests: “Use the internet or games as a tool, but don’t feel guilty if you need to rely on them at times to get things done.”

To me, one of the best take-away from the majority of the information found for parents who in this crisis suddenly find themselves being a teacher, remember this is a crisis, you have to do what is necessary during this pandemic so just do the best you can.

In another blog article entitled, How to Homeschool Your Kids During the Pandemic, Claire Sasko provides 10 Tips:

  1. “Use your teachers as your tutors”
  2. “Lower your expectations”
  3. “Start  early in the day”
  4. “Establish a structure”
  5. “Give your kids snacks”
  6. “Keep the little ones out of the room”
  7. “Schedule free time after schoolwork, especially if your kids are ahead”
  8. “Find online resources you trust”
  9. “But don’t forget about books”

“And remember: You don’t always need to force online learning”

There are links to full versions of these articles and others listed at the end of this document.

Finally, although many schools and educators have been working on and preparing for an event like our present situation, there is still much to consider. Their efforts are a work in progress. Remember COVID-19 was sudden and we are all attempting to battle through it.

Technologies have made great progress and continue to make advances in special education. Not all of these tools are yet completely accessible, and broadband is still missing in many rural communities. Demographics are such that not all families have access to individual computers and if a parent now works from home, sharing a computer becomes a challenge in home teaching. Additionally, not all parents have the necessary skills or patience for the task; this opens the possibility for abuse at home. These areas continue to improve, but in the meantime, if you know someone without internet access, struggling with this topic, please share any portion of this information with them.

A Special Thanks to:

Chad Shippee, PreK-12 Principal, Bolton Central School for taking the time to provide suggestions and encouragement, which were a guide for the writing of this.

Additional Resources:

Hill, Faith. (April 18, 2020) The Pandemic Is a Crisis for Students With Special Need Some Students Rely on Schools Foe the Personal, Hands-On Attention of Specialists. What do they do now? Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2020/04/special-education-goes-remote-covid-19-pandemic/610231/

Harrington, Theresa. (April 16, 2020). Homeschooling due to coronavirus? Expert tips on doing ‘what’s best’ for your family. Retrieved From:
https://www.times-standard.com/2020/04/16/qa-homeschooling-due-to-coronavirus-expert-advises-parents-to-do-whats-best-coronavirus/

Sasko, Claire. (April 23, 2020). How to Homeschool Your Kids During the Pandemic: 10 Tips From Homeschooling Parents. Retrieved from: https://www.phillymag.com/news/2020/04/23/homeschooling-tips-pandemic/

Family Education. (March 18, 2020). At-Home Learning Resources for the COVID-19 Outbreak. Retrieved from : https://www.familyeducation.com/at-home-learning-resources-for-the-covid-19-outbreak

Unknown. (March 16, 2020). Homeschooling during a pandemic lockdown. Retrieved from: https://zephyrnet.com/homeschooling-during-a-pandemic-lockdown/

Parenting Advice. (April 19, 2020). Top Tips from Parents on Home Schooling During a Pandemic. Retrieved from: https://senresourcesblog.com/2020/04/19/top-tips-from-parents-on-home-schooling-during-a-pandemic/

Fox, Goldberg, Eleanor. (March 19, 2020). 14 parents share their work from home plans, and tricks they’re using to do 2 full-time jobs during the coronavirus pandemic. Retrieved from: https://www.insider.com/parents-share-tips-for-working-from-home-during-coronavirus-pandemic-2020-3

Others Works Sourced:

PBS. (March 24, 2020). The switch to remote learning could leave students with disabilities behind. Retrieved from: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/education/the-switch-to-remote-learning-could-leave-students-with-disabilities-behind

Snelling, Jennifer and Fingal, Diana. (March 16, 2020). 10 strategies for online learning during a coronavirus outbreak. Retrieved from: https://www.iste.org/explore/learning-during-covid-19/10-strategies-online-learning-during-coronavirus-outbreak